PSY Week 5 Part 2
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by merlec16 on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Ashley L. Heffner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Ch. 2 Where is the Mind? p. 54-68 There Are Two Views about the Location of the Mind Dualism- Descartes idea that the body consists of matter, while the mind consists of something else Materialism- holds that here is only one kind of “stuff” responsible for mind, and that is physical matter The brain begins to initiate the process of performing certain actions, or making certain choices or decision, before the person becomes aware that he or she intends to perform the action or make the choice or decision How is the Nervous System Built? Nervous system- complex biological system designed for communication Neuron- cell type that transmits information throughout the nervous system Motor Neurons- neuron primarily responsible for communication to the muscles and organs o Main channel of communication to the muscles and organs of the body Sensory neurons- transmits sensory information to the brain o Work to convert physical energy into information in a form that may be transmitted along chains of neurons to the brain Interneurons- communicate only with adjacent neurons o “Pass messages along” Dendrites- branch-like projections of neurons that receive electrochemical stimulation from other neurons Synaptic receptors- openings that are embedded in the dendrites of neurons to which neurotransmitters bind during the process of neuronal communication Cell body- (soma) bulb-like end of the neuron containing the cell nucleus, energy for the neuron is generated here, and waste is eliminated Axon-narrow extension in many neurons that transmits electrical impulses from cell body to terminal Tract- bundle of axons (usually enclosed in a myelin sheath) that forms a communication channel within the central nervous system (brain or spine) Nerve- an enclosed bundle of axons forming a communication channel within the peripheral nervous system (outside of the brain or spine) Myelin sheath- fatty substance surrounding the axon of some neurons, increases the speed of neuronal transmission Node of Ranvier- gap between myelin sheath of axon segments Terminal- small bulb-like structure at the end of neuron axons that contains vesicles from which neurotransmitters re released Synapse- juncture of the presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron Synaptic gap- miniscule space over which neurons pass their neurotransmitters, from the terminal of the presynaptic neuron to the dendrites of the postsynaptic neuron Glia- cell type that builds the myelin sheath that surrounds the axon of some neurons, helps to develop and maintain neuron synapses The Action Potential: How Neurons Do Their Work Action potential- the electrical impulse that conveys information from one neuron to another, or from the neuron to bodily muscles and glands Resting potential- “default” resting setting of a neuron – the setting that would be maintained if no action potentials were fired Ion- an atomic particle that carries primarily positive or negative electrical charge Polarization- the resting potential balance between primarily negatively charged ions within a neuron and positively charged ions without Depolarization- disruption of the resting potential balance between negatively and positively charged ions within and outside the neuron o Depolarization beings the process of the firing of an action potential Neurotransmitters Send the Signal Neurotransmitters- chemical substances that carry neural signals from one neuron to another across a neuronal synapse Presynaptic neuron- the “sending” neuron in neuronal communication Postsynaptic neuron- the “receiving” neuron in neuronal communication Reuptake- when the presynaptic neuron reabsorbs some of the neurotransmitter molecules it has released, following binding of the neurotransmitter to receptor sites in the postsynaptic neuron Neurotransmitters and Drugs Agonist- any substance that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter and binds to the neurotransmitter receptor Antagonist- any substance that blocks the receptors of a particular neurotransmitter, decreasing the availability and effects of the neurotransmitter Endorphin- neurotransmitter that binds to the same receptor sites as opioid drugs and is associated with relief from pain Dopamine- neurotransmitter involved with learning, memory, attention, and problem solving
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