Ch. 4 & 5
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kim Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 111 at California State University Chico taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Science at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Cont. Chapter 4 Measuring the concentration of a solution: titration Titration: is a procedure to determine the concentration of a solution When the reaction is complete you can calculate what the concentration of your unknown solution You can tell when your reaction is complete by the indicator that you are using Oxidation Reduction (Redox) Reaction Oxidation: is the loss of one or more electrons by a substance whether element, compound or ion Reduction: is the gain of one or more electron by a substance O xidation I s L oss of e R edox I s G ain of e Oxidation Reduction (Redox) Reactions are any process in which electrons are transferred from one substance to another They can be: A neutral atom A monatomic ion A polyatomic ion A molecule Oxidation Numbers (State): is a value that indicates if an atom is a neutral, electronrich or electronpoor number Rules For Oxidation Numbers: 1. An atoms in its elemental state has an oxidation number of 0 N aH ,2r ,S2Nⅇ : Oxidation # 0 2. An atom in a monatomic ion that has an oxidation number that indicates to its charge 2−¿ ¿ −+¿O ¿ 3 ,Cl +¿,Al ¿ ¿ +¿,C a¿ Na 1+,2+¿ , 3+, 1, 2 3. An atom that is in a polyatomic ion or in a molecular compound usually have the same oxidation number. It would have if it were a monatomic ion. Hydrogen can either be +1 or 1 Oxygen usually has an oxidation number of 2 Halogens usually have an oxidation number of 1 4. The sum of the oxidation number is 0 for a neutral compound and would be equal to the net charge for a polyatomic ion H 2 O 4 (+1 )+(?)+4 −2 =0 (?)=+6 (net charge) H 2=+1,S=?,O=−2 Identifying Redox Reaction: Oxidizing Agent: Causes oxidation Gains one or more electrons Undergoes reduction Oxidation number of atoms decreases Reducing Agent: Causes reduction Loses one or electron Undergoes oxidation Oxidation number of atoms increased Ex). +¿¿ ¿ Ox: 3 +3ⅇ F eF e 2−¿ ¿ Re: −¿→20 O 24e ¿ 2−¿(aq) ¿ −¿→60 −¿+3O (g)+12e ¿ +¿ 2 ¿ 3 a( )12ⅇ 4F →4F ⅇ ¿ e() +¿ 3 (aq ) 2−¿ aq )+4F ⅇ ¿ ¿ 4Fe (s)+3O 2g →6O Times by 4 to cancel e out Times by 3 to cancel e out The activity sense of Elements Elements that are higher up in the table that are more likely to be oxidized Any of these elements that are higher in the activity sense will reduce the ion of any element lower in the activity series Chapter 5: Periodicity and the Electronic Structure of Atoms Electromagnetic Energy (Light) is Characterized by Wavelength, Frequency, and Amplitude Wavelength: is the distance between successions of wave peaks Frequency: is the number of wave peaks that passes a given point per unit Amplitude: is the height of the wave maximum from the center Wavelength x Frequency = Speed λ x v = C 1 m m x s = s C is defined to be the rate of travel of all electromagnetic energy in a vacuum 1 m s λ⋅v=cC=3.00×10 8 Hz = s = s λ= c M Hz→ H z v Particles Properties of Radiant Energy: The Photoelectric Effect and Planck’s Postulate Photon: is the smallest possible amount of radiant energy Electromagnetic enery (light is quantized) E=hv E increases V increases x −34 H (planck’s constant) = 6.626 10 J⋅s Wavelength of light of 550nm? 8m λ⋅v=c C=3.00×10 s c v= λ
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