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Chapter 1 (class #2) lecture

by: Paden McNiff

Chapter 1 (class #2) lecture PSY 202

Paden McNiff
Cal Poly

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About this Document

These easy to read notes cover everything discussed in the Wednesday, September 28th psych 202 lecture.
General Psychology
Gary Laver
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paden McNiff on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Gary Laver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
September 28, 2016      CHAPTER ONE       Brief History:    Psychology started out as a ​research discipline. ​      Began in 1 ​ 879​ in Germany ­ Wilhelm Wundt  ​Ws pronounced as Vs) ​started the first research lab.  The founding event of psychology was the founding of a lab.        Wundt believed that scientific psychology should focus on analyzing consciousness, a person's  subjective experience of the world and mind” Focused on consciousness/ structure.   Back in this time, the psychologists were M.D.s who taught in universities.    Other research disciplines are far older. The study of psychology is a n ​ ew concept  ​ and very  complex​; feelings and thoughts are difficult to study. The eldest person alive isn’t that much  older than the founding of psych!    Psychology first identity :  ​ (according to Wundt and partners) = “ ​ Scientific Study of  Consciousness”  Physiology + philosophy (in the regard of “how do I see color” etc) = psychology    Beginning scientific method (w credits to Wundt):  Introspection!!!​ Looking into one’s self, observing your own thinking and actions. Self  examination! Thinking about your actions and reflecting on your own experiences and thoughts  while you are thinking/acting. Noticing patterns within one’s own process.     Psychology second identity :​ ​Behaviorist manifesto  ​ ­ psychology changes to the Science of  Behavior.  Test, observe, and measure ­ you can’t test, observe, and measure what’s going on in  someone’s head completely, but you can test, observe and measure behavior and actions.  John B. Watson 1913 Columbia University   Problem: ignores mental process!!    Psychology currently​: ​“The discipline/science concerned with behavior and mental  processes…”  Acknowledges both mental process and behavior aspects of psychology. Follows within a  research tradition.           “Perspectives” / explanations for psychology:     Psychoanalytic​ ­ we act the way we do because of unconscious motives. Ex, childhood  determines future life, many homophobes show homosexual tendencies, etc: F ​ reud, Alfred  Alder, Jung    Behavioral ­ ​  your behavior based on what you’ve learned: E ​ dward Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov,  Burris Skinner, John Watson, Albert Bandura    Biological​ ­ you act how you do because of your biology and physiology. Depression comes  from chemical imbalances, etc : ​Gordon Allport, Roger Sperry, James Olds, Michael Gazzaniga    Humanistic​ ­ you act the way you to do get respect and appreciation from others: ​Carl Rogers,  Abraham Maslow, Mihaly C.    Cognitive​ ­ emphasis of what goes on in people’s heads; learning, motivations, etc. One of the  most influential perspectives.: ​George Kelly, Jean Piaget and many more    *lecturer note : lack of diversity in the discipline (i.e: all the major influences are western white  men) leads to a bias and limits the way we think :(     Limited perspectives ^ lead to lack of knowledge in the field of :    Emotions: Do not yet have a full psychological explanation other than “this part of the brain  deals with emotion”. A quarter of college students are depressed at any given moment in time :(    Individualism/competition vs cooperation: Theories all about competition. Everyone thinks  competitively!!    Hierarchies and sequences: Whenever you have competition, hierarchies are present.     (WE NEED DIVERSITY AND NEW IDEAS)    ____________________________________________________________________________                  Research    ​ ​ Relationships and correlation do not equivocate to  ​ cause and effect.  Correlations can be (and frequently are) random.     Positive relationships = both go up and down together    /  /  / /  Negative relationships = one goes up, other goes down     / \  /    \    Caffeine study example:  Does caffeine cause better memory?  Study: find identical twins and separate them into groups. Group 1 gets caffeine, group 2 gets  decaf. Wait 20 minutes. Then, instruct both groups to read first textbook chapter for an hour and  then take a fifty item test. Group 1 will score slightly higher.­enhances­memory/    Terminology:    Hypothesis = ​cause and effect statement. “Caffeine causes your memory to improve.”  Independent variable = ​whatever it is that has an effect. The cause. Caffeine!  Dependent variable = ​what is effected. The memory of the twins.  Experimental conditions = ​The conditions that contain the independent variable. Caffeine given  to group.   ​ Control conditions = ​Random assignment ­ assigning individuals to study groups based on  randomizations , using a number generator or other. The assumption is that by randomly  assigning individuals the groups will level out.     ALL EXPERIMENTS ARE (should be) RUN AT LEAST TWICE!        


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