GEOG 1001 9.28.16
GEOG 1001 9.28.16 Geog 1001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Basinger on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1001 at University of Cincinnati taught by Nicholas Dunning in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physical Geography in Geography at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Introduction to Physical Geography 9.28.16 Earth Structure and Tectonics Part 2 Continental suture: zone of crustal deformation produced by continent- continent collisions. Diastrophism: movement of crustal rock under stress/pressure Orogeny: the upward movement of crust to form a mountain range o DEFINITION WILL BE ON TEST o Uplifted and tilted limestone strata along a fault adjacent to Antakya, Turkey. Formerly horizontal sedimentary rock strata have been tilted nearly vertical into “hogbacks” during the course of tectonic uplift o Much of the Appalachian Mountain system was created by the prolonged suturing of North America and Gondwanaland (Africa and Eurasia) between 350 and 290 million years ago. This suturing also created the Atlas Mountains in Africa as part of the plate convergence that created Pangaea Pluton: body of intrusive igneous rock; that is, magma injected into subterranean rock formations where it cools and solidifies. Plutons may eventually be exposed at the Earth’s surface by weathering and erosion o Enchanted Rock, a pluton in central Texas PICTURE WILL BE ON TEST o Batholiths are very large plutons. Famous North American batholiths include: Great Smokey Mountains, Black Hills (Mt. Rushmore), Sierra Nevada Mountains, Devil’s Tower, and Stone Mountain The pressure and stress of diastrophism results in the folding and/or faulting of rock structures Folding: bending and distortion of rock layers resulting from tectonic compression o Much of the Appalachian Mountain system is an old, eroded fold-and- thrust belt created by orogeny some 290 - 350 million years ago during the plate convergences that produced Pangaea. The present-day landscape reflects the on-going weathering and erosion of the folded and uplifted terrain produced by the ancient Appalachian Orogeny Syncline (or basin): downward fold of bedrock layers Anticline (or dome): upward fold of bedrock layers o Cuesta: ridge formed of more resistant folded bedrock strata. QUIZ QUESTION #7: Synclines and anticlines are… Created by crustal folding Faulting: the fracturing and displacement of sections of the lithosphere o Thrust/reverse fault: a fault where an overlying block is pushed over an underlying block o Strike-slip (transform or transcurrent) fault: adjacent areas of earth are displaced horizontally. o Normal fault: adjacent areas of earth are displaced vertically WILL BE ON TEST Horst and Graben Landscapes o Horst (fault block mountain): block of land uplifted between two normal faults. o Graben (fault block basin): trench-like valley formed where a block of land drops between two normal faults
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