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by: Stephanie Price

ARC_241_Exam_Two.pdf ARC 241

Stephanie Price

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About this Document

These are the notes of what has been covered in Section Three: Architecture of South and Southeast Asia.
History of Architecture
Professor Schaffer
Class Notes
Hinduism, Buddhism, Architecture
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Price on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARC 241 at North Carolina State University taught by Professor Schaffer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture in Architecture at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
Arc 241 • SECTION THREE: Hinduism and Buddhism • TRIMURTI: • represents all aspects of the universe • begun in about 500 bce • traces found in about 2000 bce • no central leader • embraces thousands of gods • PALIMSCEST: • can see traces of old structures there • the union and joining of the male and female • Yoni: • circle base • linga: • upright cylindrical piece • Vedas: • hymns and rituals of the gods • BRAHMA: • known as the creator god, reborn from a lotus flower growing out of the god vishnu • VISHNU: • known as the preserver god, governs the world (portrayed with a shell or a snake) • SHIVA: • known as the destroyer god, procreator energy (portrayed dancing) • Female counterparts of the gods: • Serasravti: • known as the learning and music god • Lakshmi: • known as the goddess of wealth •Devi: • known as the mother god • worship was left to the brahman caste •top: priests and teachers •second: warriors •third: merchants •forth: laborers •last: untouchables • believed in transmigration of the souls (reincarnation; souls reborn into new bodies) • the caste system led to a revolt and the creation on Javism MANDALA:hism) • • cosmic diagram, sacralizes the space, proper orientation and proportions • LADKHAN TEMPLE: • located in Aihole • built between 670 - 690 ce • dedicated to Vishnu when first built, now dedicated to Shiva • square in plan • elevated • mandapa: • entry porch that becomes vestibules (columned porch) • vertical axis • wooden village assembly hall - translated to stone • pierced screens to allow for moderate light and controlling air flow • modeled after the holy mountain (sacred cave) • the sacred cave is identified as the shikhara (mountain) and the garbhagriha (cave) • KHAJURAHO: •western group of temples (faced east) •Khandariya mahadeva temple: • dedicated to the gods Shiva and Devi • built in about 1000 - 1050 ce • built by the chandelle dynasty who ruled during 950 - 1050 ce • stone temples symbolized importance • believed in tantrik hinduism (sexual act) • multiple mandapas for a prolonged entry to show • importance thick walls • cross axis • no directional path, square plan in cross axis for a • pause only the gods are allowed to experience the vertical axis of • the linga (most sacred area) pradakshina: • •the act of circumambulation • garba griha: •inside the shikara (shrine to the gods) • before you enter, you must circumambulate the outside and then circumambulate the inside • each tabemackle (shrine inside) have their own linga • ecstasy is the spiritual state that is wished to be reached • LAKSHMANA: •dedicated to vishnu •built with honey colored sandstone •built around 950 ce •there are four subsidiary shrines •projection of stairs into our realm •experience the entry •circumambulate before you enter •the shires depict early life •faces east •the idea of a shared belief •one central religion •built with the cosmic diagram • ganesha: •known as the elephant god, the remover of obstacles • ANGOR WAT: •located in cambodia •built by suryavarman II (in the khmer dynasty) •known as the capital from 9th - 15 th century •kings often built new residences in the capitals adjacent to the old ones that were then abandoned •water handled well, the control was essential to their city •built around 1000 - 1200 ce •known as the abode of vishnu (shrine to him) , later occupied by buddhist monks • angor thom: •less spacer angor wat •control of monsoon water • angor wat faces west •circumambulation is to be made counter-clockwise which is •unusual temple: • 1040 x 820 meters • moat is 200 meters wide, 2 meters deep • associated with the fall equinox • vishnu was seen as king (law giver) • the number of columns were symbolic of the years in the hindu calendar •it was reached by a causeway on the west side •the common people could only go as far as the crucifix on the path to the main temple •the libraries on either side housed sacred texts •concentric rectangular in form •three layers (outer, middle, inner) •short side faces the main axis •outer rectangle is the most sacred •preau: • entrance point cruciform •built from mortarless sandstone (grey, rose colored) •corners are cruciform in shape (pavilion form) •causeway is 350 meters long, 10 meters wide •built around 1120 - 1150 ce •mount mehru: • the sacred mountain of the gods which the shikara is modeled after •corbling, post and lentel •elements along the causeway are of a celestial seven headed serpent •outer gallery: • facing outward • bar building • largely closed • post and lentel •middle gallery: • not bais in where it is facing •inner gallery: • faces inward •central basin: • four total • entered east/west axis • stairs are at multiple levels • into the basin another platform, then take the plunge in the center, there is a steep climb to the main shrine •even and odd mandala (8 blocks x 9 blocks) •entrance is located on the even side •once inside the shikara, you are able to view up to the top •and a relic shaft in order to show the sacred cave (unusual in design) many depictions of the cosmology of the hindu belief in •relief form for 2.5 miles • vast purusha mandala: •believed to have fallen from the cosmos and it is different in form • buddhist mandala: •circe center •cardinal points • BUDDHA: •known as the awaken or enlightened one •term given to siddhather •lived in northern india •son of a wealthy merchant •was originally raised hindu •saw the suffering in the world and began to doubt his beliefs •got rid of all possessions •adopted the lifestyle of a beggar •developed a new way of life •sought out the balance of all things (achieved through meditation to achieve enlightenment) •achieved enlightenment under the body tree •nothing is permanent •everything is depended upon each other • nirvana: •extreme happiness and belief • the three jewels: •buddha (teachings) •dharma (laws) •sanga (community) • sutras: •sayings and discourse of buddha • shastras: •common tells by others • the four noble truths: •suffering is omnipresent •cause of suffering is of a wrongly directed desire •removedthe wrongly directed desire, suffering is then follow the eight fold path to lead to the end of suffering mudra: • hand gestures of buddha reasoning mudra: • one hand up, one hand down dharmaful mudra: • both hands in lap • buddhism began in northeast india •now left from india and moved east • trinata: •wheel of dharma • footprint: • print of buddha (seen as circle of life) • swastika: •symbolized life • place of worship: •known as the stupa •depositing the remains of a person and mounding over them with rocks •buddhas remains are located in ten different stupas • stupa: •mounds •rised in the center •circumambulate around the stupa clockwise direction • MAHASTUPA: •located in sanchi, ashoka •stupa enlarged in 250 bce •known as the great stupa •has a fence from the two different realms •four entrance gates •harmasal crowned (royal symbol to link to cosmos) •chattra topped •rubble core •expanded and then finished •120 ft in diameter •gates were placed afterwards •located within a larger monastery •known as the religion of richer merchants •multiple statues of buddha in the stupa •if you are enlightened, you can reach the second level •walked as if you are moving in •core is solid •not an occupied space •allows in lightdeled after weaving of vegetal materials •made of stone (protection) chattra: • symbol of the buddha • circular forms represent the divine •rectangular forms represent the human need •monasteries located outside the town • CAVE 8, CHAITYA HALL, KARLI • sacred place • chaitya hall carved into the rock • subtractive process • traditional memorial construction over a grave • circumambulate the site • built around 100 - 120 bce • used and developed in the 200 bce • ashaka column outside of the entry • western ghasts • stone chaitya hall represented the wooden ones built in the villages • wooden arches to represent the origins of the chaitya hall • simple forms • stylized chaitya • three squares in plan • based on the mandala form • columns depicted the buddhist life • radial beams on the ceiling centered above the stupa AJANTA • built in 390 ce • southern trade route • cluster of monasteries • viharas: •monasteries • carved from living rock • religious community of merchants • mainly merchants came through the site CAVES 10 & 9 • among the oldest of chaitya halls • located in karli • built before 390 ce • horseshoe shaped arches • stilted arches • enclosed with glass at a later time • built with an odd number of openings for entrance to be • made known cave 9 is smaller than 10 but same chaitya forms • stupas located at the ends • CAVE 19 located in karli • part of the chaitya halls • built in 450 ce • most elaborate of the chaitya halls • arch depicts buddha (shaped like his head) • carved into the living rock • many depictions of the buddha are located around the cave • projecting portico • columns enlightened with the wall • elaborate stupa at the end of the hall • stone carved to look like wood ceiling • circumambulating around the stupa • depictions of the buddha within and quite elaborate BOROBODUR, JAVA • shailendra dynasty, embraced both buddhism and hinduism • located on the trade routes of china and india • modeled after the cosmic mountain • giant stupa located at the top of the temple • built around 790 - 850 ce • built on a slight incline • based on the mandala • stairs on all four sides • notched edges to form not quite a perfect square • the outer most terrace was added later • mount merapi: •represents the sacred mount • stupa located at the center of the temple • tiers and layers represent the stages of life • buddhas life is depicted on the layers • circumambulate each of the gallery layers • since past the galleries three ranges of stupas before the main at the top • vertical axis and cross axis based • based on two mandalas that overlap to create perfect entrance • literal representation of the journey to enlightenment • four galleries with projecting corners • solid underneath • unable to enter the center stupa of the buddha) • center stupa is hollow • moving towards the absence of yourself • while moving in the site you lose sight go your goal (the main • stupa) niches are facing out (you walk behind or below) • you do not take the main axis you are to circumambulate • made of stone • corbelling arches • smaller stupas house buddhas • freeze moving around the site • once enclosed you do not view the depictions • mudras have different depictions based on where you are facing (east side has the palm down mudra, south side has the palm down mudra, west side has the both sides in lap mudra) • as you walk through you view the story • there are three rings of open lattice work stupas • new place of awareness • diagonal lattice on the smaller stupas • 32, 24, 16 (stupas) total of 72 • transition of the human and the divine • zenith buddha: •within the stupas • top stupas: •rectangle lattice •buddha inside •lotus petals within or at the bottoms • large stupa at the center to show a solid stupa (made to have those wonder what is within) PAMBAHAN, JAVA • hindu temple • shikaras • built between 850 - 910 ce • different religion in the same culture • multiple shikaras • dedicated to shiva • shiva located at the center • vishnu and brahma are also worshiped there • in and out notches • sacred mountain • not just religion (culture developed) • small depictions facing outwards • made of stone PAGover 2,000 shrines MYANMAR • buddhist culture • city of shrines and temples • fairly large stupas • ahada temple at edge of town • sacred city • AHADA, KING KYANZITTHA 1090 - 1105 ce • fallen into ruin • rebuilt in 1783 ce • tall form at the center • influenced by shikara design but they are stupas • solid core • modeled after a buddhist mandala • concentric ambulation, where you circumambulate • located on a raised terrace • flame like elements • influenced on local preferences • gold top • corbelling openings • odd and even mandala to show where to enter • smaller shines and smaller buddhas • each side is different • main four buddhas within are made of gold and rather large BAMIYAN, AFGHANISTAN • carved into hillside • monk caves • largest carved buddhas in the world • the location was blown up by the taliban in 2001 • it is now being culturally restored BATHING GHAT, BENARES • access to waters edge • water is a physical and spiritual need • sacred water (feeds into the ganges) • believed that the ganges connects all places in india where there is water • ganges binds together all of india • varanasi: •water is associated with healing • thought of as the source of all life • the geography in india is thought of as sacred • there were originally seven sacred rivers in india (only one act of ritual bathing (sacred act) • bathing is the act of purifying ones self • tirtha: • ford in the river •a place where you can cross passage to sacred realm • medium between human and spiritual realm • water is spiritual • not like plumbing • GUJARAT AND RAJASTHAN • very dry • heavy monsoons for two months and then the rest of the time dry • use of water management TEMPLE OF SURYA, MOTHER, GUJARAT • kund: •large open basin related to temple complex •also a trithua •connected to the ganges spiritually • known as the temple of the sun • built in the late 11th century • step pound • used for ritual cleansing • muslims: •destroyed temples but kept the trithuras • temples rebuilt • water rich site: •locate tree •find a high water table •space to contain the water • outside of the area is dry • slight incline in order to discourage run off water • aligned with the cardinal points • temple faces east • temple is dedicated to vishnu • multiple shrines around kund (sacred) • free standing mandapa • many stairs • able to hold a vast number of people • before the monsoon season no water, after the monsoon season less steps • transverse stairs • navigate father down • stone base but enough seepage to allow for water table • CHAND BOVORI, ABHANERI, RAJASTHAN known as moon or silver well • largest or deepest step pond • related to near by temple but also part of a palace complex • north / south axis • high water table • steep and deep • north side has palace • palaces go down as water recedes • stairs - 18 in wide, 5 ft drop • bar building courtyard that goes around • post and lental • lower pools and shrines built in the 8th century • upper part of the site built in the 18th century by the muslims (mughal) • hot and dry area (step pond has a cooling affect, moving down the stairs for cooling, sun above) • aiches scalloped: •lotus like form •stairs align and make diamond forms •ground water CHAUMUKHI STEPWELL, CHOBARI, GUJARAT • it was the women job to obtain water • located in the villages • used for bathing, drinking, washing • used for babies to be emerged (sacred) • cruciform in shape • four entranced • diminished by the british • many wells left to decay to rot • renewed interest in there in the 20th century • thought to have over 2,000 wells in india, now less • few wells left and more being discovered • wealthy villagers paid for well to be built • only building of stone in village • water lever ever changing • not well cared for RUDBADEVI RAU, ADALAJ, GUJART • one of the largest step wells • built from 1499 - 1503 ce • made of sandstone hindu who married into a muslim family • paid for by her • dedicated to the life on earth • built on a high water table • cross axis • entered on the south side • total of three entrances • land and narrow in design • used for worship and drawing water • series of platforms downward • used by many travelers as a safe haven • elevated • low wall around the wells • total of four shrines • many pavilions • enclosed • hindu and muslim forms • almost no human figures depicted • abstract reference to the figures in the sides • cooling affect as you go downward • dyes in place of incense • water is now pumped up from the well • women enjoyed gathering at the well JANTAR MANTAR, JAIPUR • observatory • help decode the mysteries of the universe • north / south axis • recording observations of the moon, sun, and constellations • samrat yantra •giant sun dial •tracking the sun • jar prakash yantra •sun tracking •viewed underneath • ram yantra •sun tracking •viewed vertically


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