History 201 Chapter 5 Notes
History 201 Chapter 5 Notes Hist 201
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Krahling on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 201 at Coastal Carolina University taught by John Navin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at Coastal Carolina University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 5 British Military Strategy: -‐British have moved to Nova Scotia, now having no military presence in New England -‐John Burgoyneà tries to lead troops and Indian allies from Quebec to New England because he believes if he can conquer the colony that started all the problems the war will end, making them victorious -‐John Adams (Mass) nominates George Washington (Virginia) to be the leader of the army (Colonial Army) to defeat the British -‐He has experience and would help bring Virginia into the war -‐His army was comprised of 20% Black slaves, militia men, enlisters, small, young, and poor -‐Washington knows he has to start moving south because British are recovering and re-‐ gathering troops -‐British want to capture Philadelphia (Later do) but go for NY because its easier for them to get to, has more Tories, and deep sea ports -‐32,000 British troops are sent to Long Island -‐British overtake 2 American forts: Washington and Lee -‐States are in need of foreign aid and weapons because obviously Great Britain doesn’t like them right now -‐French secretly send weapons to the Caribbean for Americansà don’t want to get involved until they know Americans can win -‐Washington realizes he can’t defeat the British toe to toe so he runs with his armyà Fighting Selectively: Washington’s Strategy -‐1776-‐ Morristown-‐ Washington still hasn’t won-‐ spirits are low -‐Its customary for fighting to stop during the winter so men can rest-‐ Winter Quarrel -‐1776-‐ Washington launches a surprise attack on Trenton, NJ-‐ occupied by hessian missionaries-‐ silent defeat -‐Boost American morale, then they attack British supply at Princeton and win -‐Big wins for the Americans -‐British have a plan to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies -‐John Burgoyne goes South with troops, General Howe was supposed to move North and overtake colonies but he’s chasing Washington and doesn’t go North -‐General is captured and defeated -‐Was a 3 day battleà Battle of Saratogaà Americans win causing the French to going the Revolutionary War -‐Americans now have the help of French Navy, British withdraw from Philadelphia -‐Spain enters as Frances ally and the Dutch help as well -‐Southern Strategy: British want to go far south then start working there way back up overtaking colonies and giving the land to the tories -‐Leads to the capture of Charleston in 1780à worst defeat for the Americans in the whole war -‐Rochambeau-‐ Commander of the French troops who came to America to help -‐Admiral DeGrasse-‐ French Fleetà sailing to the Caribbean stealing sugar from the British -‐**French are not allowed to try to gain any land in America -‐Southern Campaign-‐ same as the Southern Strategy -‐Americans are trying to rebuild their army inland and British Commander Cornwallis defeats them at Camden -‐Kings Mountains-‐ Patriots vs. Toriesà Patriots win -‐Cowpens-‐ American forces lure British troops into an ambushà Great victory for the Americans -‐Cornwallis goes back to the coastà Virginia to Yorktown hoping for more supplies and troops -‐Washington hears that some of his men are surrounding Yorktown and DeGrasse is sending his Fleets that way by water and can have Cornwallis trapped -‐Washington creates a ploy where he sends a few troops to NY and sends a majority or his men to Yorktown -‐start a siegeàbuilding trench’s bringing in the cannonà the British are forced to surrender -‐October 1781-‐ Americans win Yorktown -‐Peace of Parisà 1783 ends the warà Spain, France and Dutch were working towards other things which delayed the treaty -‐U.S. owns up to the Mississippi River and loses Florida to Spain -‐England has Canada -‐Spain has western the Mississippi River and Mexico -‐States drafted their own constitutions: Free States (Northern) Slave States (Southern) -‐Continental Congress has acted like the Government all throughout the war and wants it to be official so they draft the Articles of Confederationà It leaves most of the power with the states leading to a weak government -‐It needs to be approved by the states and Maryland says no unless other states give up their western territories -‐Takes 4 years but they finally agree -‐Disease kills more than any bullet or riffle -‐Native Americansàthose that helped the British had land ceased from them -‐African Americansà British told them they’d get freedom so many were taken to Canada and left thereà Africans who fought with Americans were freed
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