Chapter 2 Reading Notes
Chapter 2 Reading Notes History 202
Popular in United states history since 1865
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elly Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 202 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Gregory Domber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see United states history since 1865 in History at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 2 Reading Notes: Colonists on the Margins 1565-1640 1565-1607: Conquest Begins and Trade Expands Began as Latin America and expanded North Struggle to colonize Florida to expand Mexico England was Spain’s main rival Intensified competition among Indians and transformed their culture Spain Stakes Claim to Florida Lead by Spanish leader Pedro Menedez Hoped that Indians would be awed and become allies and subjects Menedez married a Calusa chief’s sister Hispanic-Indian alliance by converted Indians to schooling Little of his vision became reality and his interest in Florida was soon gone Indian resistance and European attacks finished off Florida as well Enslaved Africans owned by Philip II, king of Spain, used to protect from European forces Franciscan friars pursued Indian converts Philip II issued the royal orders for New Discoveries o Stated that missionaries should play principle role in colonization o Baptized Indians should live on missionaries and be hispanized Focused on Timucua and Guales o Timucuans became Spanish allies o Guales rebelled New Spain into the Southwest Pueblo Indians in today’s New Mexico faced a series of Spanish-led invasions 1581 small group of friars renamed the region “New Mexico” Pueblos killed the missionaries prompting more invasions Expedition led by Juan de Onate arrived in 1598 o Motivated by visions of riches and glory o Received peacefully by the Pueblos In the end, New Mexico’s conquers won little glory or wealth, but spilled plenty of Pueblo blood Brutality dissuaded most Pueblos from challenging Spanish authorities New Mexico served as a base for Spanish expeditions Onate wanted to reach the Pacific partly because the Spanish were considering a California outpost to facilitate trade with East Asia and ward off European rivals 1565 Spanish mariners discovered a route from Philippines to Acapulco o “Mexican – Filipino trade” took 4-5 months New Mexico remained a poor satellite of Mexico England Enters Eastern North America 3 European powers contested Spanish claims to North America and Caribbean: France, Netherlands, and England French and Dutch were wealthier than England, but they faced religious and political issues at home France did not enjoy peace until Henry IV became king and signed the Edict of Nantes England enjoyed political stability which helped to focus on colonization, as Spain’s main rival o Population rose from 3 million to 5 million o Landlords fenced off commons which accelerated ownership and increased unemployment Joint-stock companies offered a model for financing colonial ventures in England European’s renewed interest in the Americas focused first on the Caribbean and on taking the Spanish Empire’s wealth o Slave trade expeditions View of English colonization as a way to oppose Spain and Catholicism and solve many of England’s social and economic issues Privateering and opposition to Spain led to England’s first sustained attempt to colonize North America Wanted a costal base from St Augustine to sail Caribbean English presentation of themselves as more humane than Spanish took root and still shapes many views today Imports and a Changing Indian Northeast Indians in Canada traded very frequently with Europe The fur trade ensured that the St. Lawrence River remained the main gateway for European goods into North America Imports initially reinforced traditional Indian beliefs and practices Indians incorporated imports into their world on their own terms European Islands in an Algonquian Ocean 1607-1625 Tsenacommach and Virginia 144 English colonists founded Jamestown – protected from Indians and hoped to be turned into a quick profit o Hunger and disease claimed all but 38 Powhatan, chief of Tsenacommach, incorporated Jamestown o Jamestown thought it should be them incorporating Tsenacommach Virginia colonists adapted English labor systems o Indentured Servitude Need for labor also led Virginia colonists to purchase Africans Most significant changes to Virginia Company policy came in when officials decided to let colonists own land and govern themselves o Right to own land drew thousands to Virginia Established English America’s first representative assembly, the House of Burgesses Replaced martial law with English common law War: Virginia vs. Tsenacommach finished off Virginia New France, New Netherland, New Indian Northeast Samuel de Champlain (France) founded Quebec City (New France) Indians saved the struggling colony Catholic Church also offered support until an English attack forced Champlain to surrender Dutch entrepreneurs established a colony on the Hudson and founded a trading post, Fort Nassau, now Albany, New York Dutch expanded their cultural networks by catering to Indian beliefs and needs Dutch officials awarded the Dutch West India Company (DWIC) a monopoly on commerce and charged it to establish colonies New Netherland remained a low priority for the DWIC Pilgrims and Algonquians 102 English immigrants, “pilgrims” came to America aboard the Mayflower and settled in Plymouth too late in the season to plant Pilgrims enjoyed worship of freedom in the Netherlands but worried their children would become Dutch Meanwhile an epidemic decimated the Algonquians in Massachusetts Bay o Unknown disease killed 90% European diseases killed Indians and made Plymouth’s survival more likely Pilgrim’s envisioned Plymouth becoming New England’s most powerful village Surplus of corn strengthened the colony’s position strategically and financially Still Plymouth never prospered Seeking God, Seizing Land, Reaping Conflict Missionaries and Indians in New France and New Mexico Catholic missionaries brought new zeal to their efforts to evangelize Indians in New France and New Mexico o Jesuits in New France o Franciscans in New Mexico Jesuits took on two tasks in New France o 1. Establish missions among Montagnais and Hurons o 2. Promote their work, seek money, and recruit Despite conflicts, Hurons valued alliance with French and admired Jesuit qualities o Such as ability to read and write, immunity to diseases Epidemics and compromise saved their mission Franciscans in New Mexico arrived and founded missions Life outside the mission was hard so many Pueblos lived within the missions Mission Indians endured campaigns to remake them into hispanized Christians Pueblos were traditionally matrilineal but Pueblo women lost their rights to land, seeds, and children in missions Migration and Expansion of Dutch and English North America Heavy immigration caused New Netherland and New England colonies to grow quickly Demand for labor channeled migrants Conflict in England led to creation of Massachusetts Bay and Maryland Contrastingly DWIC did little to promote New Netherland o Became a Dutch colony compromised of people not Dutch DWIC issued a Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions New Netherland became the most diverse colony yet Also grew because African Bondage took root early on However, the Dutch still failed to keep pace with the English English colonies vastly outnumbered French, Dutch, and Spanish o Gave England a major advantage Most English who went to colonies were young, single men seeking economic independence Dissent in the “City upon a Hill” Massachusetts Bay colony’s first governor, John Winthrop, made Puritan principles. o Entered a covenant with God o Drew from Calvinist beliefs Developed a “conversion test” to testify relationship with God Created a well-educated society Indians became a controversial issue due to minister Roger Williams Colonist-Algonquian Wars Wars over demand for land between Algonquians in New Netherland, New England, and Virginia New Netherland: William Kieft arrived to oversee DWIC and aggressively acquired land and provoked Indians who attacked Virginia / Tsenacommach: expansion by English immigrants provoked Algonquians to attack killing 500 colonists Pequots vs. Massachusetts Bay, Narragansetts and Mohegans: Pequot control over wampum trade and access to European goods antagonized Narragansetts and Mohegans. Pequot War.
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