HIS 306N, Week 2 Notes
HIS 306N, Week 2 Notes HIS 306N
Popular in History of Human Sexuality
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zeba Khetani on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 306N at University of Texas at Austin taught by Professor Levine in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see History of Human Sexuality in History at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
09-07-16 HIS 306N Sexual Preference 1. Sexual Orientation/Identity a. Homosexuality- attraction to same sex b. Heterosexuality- male-female attraction c. Bisexuality- attraction to male and female d. Transsexuality- umbrella term for transgender and transsexual people i. Transgender- gender identity not matching assigned sex 1. You are born a girl, but don’t feel like one ii. Transsexual- subset of transgender people seeking permanent transition to the gender with which they identify 1. You are born a girl, but don’t feel like one, so you convert into a boy (physical: testosterone, surgery, etc.) 2. Choice 3. Doesn’t necessarily change who you’re attracted to e. Asexuality- no or low attraction f. Polysexuality- attraction to multiple genders (male, female, trans, half male/female) g. Pansexuality- attraction to any sex/gender identity (opposite of asexuality) 2. Regulations of sexuality a. Heterosexuality- more regulated because it’s the default, normativity i. Sexual practices ii. Marriage iii. Contraception iiii. Depiction v. Age of consent vi. Prostitution vii. Adultery viii. Diseases ix. Immigration x. Children (in and out of wedlock) b. Homosexuality i. Sexual practices ii. Marriage iii. Depiction iiii. Private vs public v. Prostitution vi. Diseases vii. Immigration 3. What about women? a. Intersectionality- how overlapping and intersecting identities are related to systems of oppression, domination, discrimination i. Women earn 75 cents to the male dollar. Colored women earn 60 cents to the male dollar. ii. Class and sexuality iii. Race and sexuality 1. Arthur Miller associated Asians with homosexuality 2. Women from “tropical environments” and homosexuality b. Absence of laws forbidding lesbianism (unlike homosexuality) i. Notion that women didn’t have sexuality. They only have sex in b. Absence of laws forbidding lesbianism (unlike homosexuality) i. Notion that women didn’t have sexuality. They only have sex in order to have babies at the end of it ii. Male legislators making laws iii. Past- women who LIKED sex were perverts, prostitutes c. Lesbian identity- caught between heterosexual-dominated feminism & male-dominated gay rights movement 4. Explanations of sexual preference/behavior: choice vs biology a. Biological/genetic b. Cultural and social; civilizational i. Uncivilized societies will produce more homosexuals c. Familial- helicopter mothers produce homosexual boys d. Developmental (psychological) i. Freud e. Theological convention: if free will, then vice i. If you’ve CHOSEN a non-normative sexuality (homosexuality, bisexuality, etc.), then it’s a sin 5. Homosexuality & politics: 19 century a. Colonial fears i. Men who were sent to colonize would turn to each other for sexual relief b/c there weren’t any women around ii. Tropical climates iii. Homosocial environments 1. The people in the pre-colonized places were uncivilized, homosexual, and would inﬂuence the men gone to colonize b. Creation of category of “homosexual” i. The label is created, where people are categorized by sexual identity ii. Widespread criminalization 1. UK 1885 2. Germany 1871 c. Cold War fears (1945ish) i. Lavender scare 1. Fear of male homosexuals inﬁltrating ii. Spy mania d. 1957: Wolfenden Report, UK i. “homosexual behavior between consenting adults in private should not be prosecuted” ii. couldn’t hold hands in public, but whatsoever you do behind closed doors is of no one else’s concern e. John Vassal( l1924-1996) i. 1954- posted to British Embassy Moscow ii. 1955- photographed by KGB agents at a gay party (“honey trap”) & blackmailed into spying for USSR iii. Worked for naval intelligence in London, spying for Russia iiii. 1962- arrested after someone of the KGB named him as a mole 1. 18 years’sentence f. Alan Turing (1912-1954)- Movie: The Imitation Game (Benedict Cumberbatch) i. Theoretical computer scientist: Turing machine, 1936 ii. WWII: helped to decode critical intercepted German messages which helped to shorten the war in Europe by 2 - 4 years iii. 1952- Turing reported a break-in at his house 1. During the investigation he acknowledged a sexual relationship with a man who was with him during the break-in and instead gets arrested himself 2. Regina vs Turing and Murray (1952) a. Convicted, 31 March 1952 b. Choice of imprisonment or hormonal treatment to a. Convicted, 31 March 1952 b. Choice of imprisonment or hormonal treatment to reduce libido- injections for a year w/ synthetic estrogen, stillboestrol c. Chose hormonal treatment- became impotent and developed breasts (gynecomastia) d. Lost his security clearance and couldn’t continue to do the work (code cracking) he was doing i. Gay people were unreliable iiii. Denied entry into US v. Killed himself vi. July 2012, bill introduced in House of Lords to grant Turing a statutory pardon 1. December 2012 letter w/ 11 signatories (Stephen Hawking, etc.) 2. Pardon signed 24 December 2013, ofﬁcial as of August 2014 3. Only 4 royal pardon since end of WWII a. Unusual b/c pardons usually granted when person technically innocent, when he wasn’t 6. Neither APAs (psychological, psychiatric) have deﬁned same-sex preference as a mental disorder since early 1970s (Hooker) a. 1973- American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from DSM II b. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Mental Disorders i. (1952) DSM- sociopathic personality disturbance ii. (1968) DSM II- sexual deviation iii. (1975) DSM III- removed from list of disorders 1. 58% support, 5800 of 10000 iiii. (1994) DSM IV v. (2013) DSM V c. What changed APA’s mind? i. Gay activism- inspired by black activists in the south 1. 1969 Stonewall riots a. Police fought and homosexuals fought back 2. Disruption of 1970 APA convention, San Francisco ii. Work of sex researchers such as Alfred Kinsey and Evelyn Hooker iii. Changing public attitudes 1. For example: gay marriage today 2