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Book Notes Chapter 1 and 2

by: meganliening Notetaker

Book Notes Chapter 1 and 2 HDFS 2420

meganliening Notetaker

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Supplement for Quiz 1 and Quiz 2
Adolescence and Emerging Adult Development
Alexandra M. VanBergen
Class Notes
Human, development, adolescence, Emerging, and adulthood of tissues.
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by meganliening Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 2420 at Ohio State University taught by Alexandra M. VanBergen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Adolescence and Emerging Adult Development in Human Dev And Family Sciences at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
HDFS 2420: Adolescent and Emerging Adulthood Puberty: set of biological changes involved in reaching physical and sexual maturity  Universal Adolescence: life stage between the time puberty begins and the time adult status is approached, when young people are preparing to take on the roles and responsibilities of adulthood in their culture.  Culturally constructed o Define adult status differently o Length and content of daily experience is different  Roughly ages: 10-18  Emerging Adulthood: 18-25 Adolescence in Ancient Times  Aristotle: 3 stages o Infancy: birth-7 years old o Childhood: 7-14 o Adolescence: 14-21  Takes the entire course of this stage for reason to become fully established.  Plato: education shouldn’t start before the age of 7 o During childhood (7 to 14) children should focus on sports o Education in science should be delayed until adolescence Adolescence from Early Christian Times- Middle Ages  St. Augustine’s: Confessions A.D. 400 o Describes his life from early childhood until his conversion to Christianity at age 33. o Focuses on his teens and early 20’s  Reckless young man  Living an impulsive, pleasure-seeking life  Drank large quantity of alcohol  Spent money crazily  Had sex with many women  Fathered a child outside marriage o His conversion to Christianity “healed” him of all this sin  Children Crusade o Took place in 1212 o Included many in their teen years and at universities (entering ages 13-15) o Set out from Germany to Mediterranean Coast  Believed they would arrive and the waters would part for them like the Red Sea did for Moses  Then walk to the Holy Land  Ask the Muslims to allow Christian to visit the hold lands  Many other crusades of the type had occurred previously  The children one was to come in peace and innocence of youth  Backfired and the children’s lack of knowledge and experience led to many being:  Robbed  Raped  Kidnapped Adolescence from 1500-1890  1500 in European society, young people took part in life-cycle services o Life cycle services: period in their late teens and 20s in which young people would engage in domestic service, farm service, or apprenticeships in various trades and crafts  Moving out of family house and into a “masters” house  Lasted about 7 years  Men > Women likely to participate  Women became mostly servants when they did leave  Occurred in US in New England  Usually in the home of relative or family friend th th  Faded during the 18 -19 century o Industrialization > farming o Teens left for growing cities instead of towns  18 -19 century: young people became social problem o No ties to family means:  High crime  Prematital sex  Alcohol use o New instituitons came about to control this issue:  Religious associations  YMCS’s  Fixed the issue tremendously The Age of Adolescence, 1890-1920  “Adolescence” wasn’t used until the end of 19 century o before: they were seen as youth or young men and women  1890-1920 “Age of Adolescence”: crucial years that established “adolescence” o enactment of laws restricting child labor o requirements for children to attend secondary school  scholarly study  End of 19 century o Adolescence were in high demand for mines, shops and factories  Hired cheaply  750,000 children age 10-13 were employed in mines, factories and other industries  there were few labor laws and some worked 12 hour shifts for 35 cents a day o As more and more young people entered the work force, the concern of child labor became more predominant  Physical and moral concern  Activists fought for the prohibition of hiring preteens and hours worked  Requirement for longer schooling o Up till late 19 century: many states had no requiring for school o 1890-1920: required schooling in primary and secondary came about  1890: 5% ages 14-17 were in school  1920: stats rose 30% “The Age of Adolescence  establishes the separation between adolescence (period of schooling) o adulthood (after schooling)  G. Stanley Hall o Started the study of adolescence as a field of scholarship o Obtained the first Ph. D. in psychology o Founder of the American Psychological Association o First president of Clark University o Initiators of the child study movement  Child study movement: advocated scientific research on child and adolescent development and the improvement of conditions for children and adolescents in the family, school and workplace o Wrote the first textbook on adolescence in 1904: Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education  Covered:  physical health and development  adolescence cross-culturally and historically  adolescent love.  Verified:  development during puberty  assertion that depressed mood peek in mid-teens  Discredited:  Recapitulation: held that the development of each individual recapitulates the evolutionary development of the human species as a whole  Storm and stress: Theory promoting G. Stanley Hall asserting that adolescence inevitably is a time of mood disruptions and arguing with parents and antisocial behavior. Monitoring the Future  Conducted at the University of Michigan in 1975  Surveyed 50,000 adolescences on many topics including: o Substance use o Political and social attitudes o Gender roles  Survey: a study that involves asking people questions about their opinions, beliefs or behavior o Closed ended questions are used (predetermined set of responses  Stratified Sampling: select participants so that various categories of people are represented in proportions equal to their presence in the population o Include: age, gender, ethnic group, education and socioeconomic status o Random sample: people selected for participation in the study are chosen randomly --- no one has a better/worse chance Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood th  G. Stanley Hall: early 20 century o Age range of adolescence: 14-24  Today o Age range of adolescence: 10-18  What happened? o Two changes  1) Menarche: girls first menstruation  Beginning of 20 century in western countries: age 15  2) Biological change and social change  growth of secondary school attendance to a normative experience for adolescents in the U.S. o 1890: 5% of Americans ages 14-17 were enrolled in high school o 1985: 95% of Americans ages 14-17 were enrolled in high school  Social changes: education ended at different times, work began at different times, leaving home was at different times  Emerging Adulthood: period from about 18-25 in industrialized countries during which young people become more independent from parents and explore various life possibilities before making enduring commitments o Five characteristics distinguish this:  1) the age of identity explorations  explore life and work, what they desire to do  establish a more definite identity  2) the age of instability  explore options in love and work means often and unstable life  frequent move from one residence to another o much higher 18-29 o nearly ½ move back in with their parents once o European countries, emerging adults never move out  3) the self-focused age  move out of parents 18-19 and don’t get married or have kids till late 20s  in between relying on their parents and long-term commitments in love and work o develop knowledge, skills and self- understanding  seen as a temporary and necessary step  4) the age of feeling in-between  not adolescent but not adult  not until late 20s-early 30s do people feel that they have reached adulthood o found in: Argentina, Austria, Israel, the Czech Republic, China  5) the age of possibilities  many different futures remain possible  high hopes and great expectations  optimism  left their family of origin but not yet committed to new network  Definitely time for those that came from troubled homes to turn their lives around  Time to be made into own image  7-10 year span of hoping their goals are possible  Emerging adulthood exists mainly in developed countries: United states, Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Japan  Becoming more prevalent  Median for marriage: 26 for women and 28 for men (risen steeply over past 40 years  70% of Americans have/are attending some college  Three periods: o Early adolescence: ages 10-14  Noticeable changes in puberty o Late adolescence: ages 15-18  End of secondary school o Emerging adulthood: ages 18-25  Begin the exploratory activities in love and work Storm and Stress  G. Stanly Hall had the idea that during adolescence storm and stress was inevitable o Included  Conflict with parents  Mood disruptions  Risk behavior (substance abuse and crime) o Believed most Lamarckian  Lamarckian: evolutionary ideas that many prominent thinkers in early 20 century considered to be a better explanation of evolution that Darwin’s theory of natural selection  Organisms pass on characteristics from one generation to the next in the form of MEMORIES and ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS not genes  Recapitulated = reenacted o Something traumatic had to happen previous years for children to go through storm and stress o Anna Freud: viewed adolescents who did not go through storm and stress with great suspension, claiming something was wrong with them.  “To be normal during the adolescent period is by itself abnormal” Transition to Adulthood: Cross-Cultural Themes  Legally the transition to adulthood at 18 o Signing legally binding documents o Eligible to vote  Entering rolls of adulthood o Full-time work o Marriage o Parenthood  According to young people the most important markers from teen to adult is: o Accepting responsibility for oneself o Making independent decisions o Becoming financially independent  Individualism: cultural belief system that emphasizes the desirability of independence, self-sufficiency and self-expression  Collectivism: a set of beliefs asserting that it is important for persons to mute their individual desires in order to contribute to the well-being and success of the group Transition to Adulthood: Cultural Variations  Israelis: completing military service is important for becoming an adult  Argentines: value being able to support a family financially  India and China: being able to support their parents financially  Traditional, Non-western cultures: Marked by marriage  Interdependence: the web of commitments, attachments and obligations that exist in some human groups o Marriage is a social event rather than an individual, psychological process o Represents establishment of new network  Especially in traditional cultures Scientific Study of Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood  Scientific Method: Five Step Process: a systematic way of finding the answers to questions or problems that includes standards of sampling, procedure and measures o 1) Identifying a question to be investigated  come from theory or previous research  come from personal observation or experience o 2) forming a hypothesis  hypothesis: ideas, based on theory or previous research, that a scholar wishes to test in a scientific study  influence the sampling and steps that follow o 3) choosing a research method and a research design  research method: approach to investigate hypothesis  research design: plan for when and how to collect the data for the study  one point in time or more than one point o 4) collecting data to test hypothesis  seeking to obtain a sample  sample: the people included in a given study, who are intended to represent the population of interest  sample should represent the population  population:entire group of people of interest in study  seek out a sample that will be representative of the population  representative: characteristic of a sample that refers to the degrees to which it accurately represents the population of interest  generalizable: characteristics of a sample that refers to the degree to which findings based on the sample can be used to make accurate statements about the population of interest  procedure: the way the study is conducted and the data are collected o 5) drawing conclusions that lead to new questions and hypothesis  Method: describes the research methods and design  Results: presents the statistical analyses and qualitative material  Discussion: presenting the interpretation of the results  Peer Reviewed: when a scholarly article or book is evaluated by a scholar’s peers for scientific credibility and importance CHAPTER 2: Biological Foundation  Puberty: Latin word (pubescere) which means “to grow hairy” o Includes changes in:  Anatomy  Physiology  Physical appearance The Endocrine System  Endocrine system: a network of glands in the body. Through hormones, the glands coordinate their functioning and affect the development and functioning of the body o Hormones: chemicals, released by the glands of the endocrine system, that affect the development and functioning of the body, including development during puberty  The hormonal changes of puberty begin in the hypothalamus o Hypothalamus: the “master gland” located in the lower part of the brain beneath the cortex that affects a wide range of physiological and psychological functioning and stimulates and regulates the production of hormones by other glands, including the ones involved in the initiation of puberty  Motivation and functioning in areas such as:  Eating  Drinking  Sexuality  Stimulates and regulates the production of hormones by other glands  Initiate puberty it begins to increase GnRH  Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): hormone released by the hypothalamus that causes gonadotropins to be released by th pituitary o Pulses in intervals of 2 hours o Begins in middle childhood o Research says this begins when a level of body fat is reached o Fat cells release:  Leptin: a protein, produced by fat cells, that signals the hypothalamus to initiate the hormonal changes of puberty  Those that are thin, extreme exercise, malnutrition, delay puberty  The increase in GNHR affect the pituitary gland o Pituitary gland: a gland about half an inch long located at the base of the brain that releases gonadotropins as part of the body’s preparation for reproduction  Releases hormones called gonadotropins:  Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) o Stimulate the development of gametes- eggs cells in the ovaries and sperm in the testes o Influence the production of sex hormones  Luteinizing hormone (LH) o Stimulate the development of gametes:  eggs cells in the ovaries and sperm in the testes o Influence the production of sex hormones  The Gonads and the Sex Hormones o Gonads: ovaries and testicles  Sex glands  Increase their production of sex hormone:  Androgens and estrogens that cause the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics o Estrogen: especially high in females from puberty onward.  Most important estrogen:  Estradiol o Breast growth o 8x as high in females before puberty  2x as high in males than before puberty o Androgens: especially high in males from puberty onward  Most important androgen:  Testosterone o Facial hair o 20x as high in mid-teens for males o 4x as high in mid-teens for females  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): the hormone that causes the adrenal glands to increase androgen production  The Feedback Loop in the Endocrine System o From infancy onward, a feedback look runs:  Feedback loop: system of hormones involving the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland and the gonads, which monitors and adjusts the levels of the sex hormones o The hypothalamus monitors levels of androgens and estrogens in the bloodstream. When sex hormones reach optimal level – set point  Set point: optimal level of sex hormones in the body. When this point is reaches response in the glands of the feedback loop cause the production of sex hormones to be reduced  Hypothalamus reduces GnHR o By reducing FSH, LH, ACTH  The gonads and adrenal glands respond to lowers LSH and LH by reducing sex hormones Physical Growth During Puberty  Sex hormone increase result in variety of dramatic changes in the body o Physical growth  Adolescent growth spurt: the rapid increase in heights that takes place at the beginning of puberty (one of the first signs)  Peaks height velocity: the point at which the adolescent growth spurt is at its maximum  Girls: grow about 3.5 inches per year o Usually occurs 2 years earlier than boys  Boys: grow about 4.1 inches per year o Maturity rate  Girls mature 2 years ahead of boys  Become taller than boys at 11-13  Final growth: 15  Boys final growth: 17  Asynchronicity explains why some adolescents have a “gangly” look early in puberty o Asynchronicity: extremities are the first to hit the growth spurt followed by the arms and legs. The torso, chest and shoulders are the last parts of the body to grow  Extremities: feet, hands and head  Muscle growth occurs during puberty o Increase in testosterone: higher for boys o Increase of body fat: higher for girls o Muscle to fat ratio  Girls 5:4  Hips widen  Boys 3:1  Shoulders widen  Heart size and weight changes o Boys heart growth > girls heart growth o Heart rates also decrease with growth  Growth of the lungs o Vital capacity: the amount of air that can be exhaled after a deep breath, which increases rapidly during puberty, especially for boys.  Boys > girls  Obesity o Exceeding a specific body mass index (BMI):  BMI: ratio of height to weight  Vary among age groups  Low in Africa and Southeast Asia  High in US and Europe o About 14% of American adolescent 12-17 are obese  Especially African Americans and Latinos (50% higher than Whites) o Obesity = higher leptin levels  Explains why children are entering puberty at earlier ages o Reasons:  Due to a steep decline in physical activity from age 9-15.  9-year-old = 3 hours of activity  15-year-old = less than 1 hour of activity o increase rise in soft drinks and junk food machines in school  ¼ in elementary  2/3 in middle school  90% in high school o about 80% of obese adolescents remain obese through adulthood  Physical Function in Emerging Adulthood o Emerging adulthood = peak in physical functioning o Peak bone mass is reached in the 20s o Measure of psychical stamina called maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max)  maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max): reflects the ability of the body to take in oxygen and transport it to various organs also peaks in the early 20s o cardiac output: the quantity of blood flow from the heart, peaks at age 25 o reaction time is also faster in early 20s  grip strength in men is the same o time when least susceptible to physical illnesses  immune system at most effectiveness o auto accidents are leading causes of death  homicide is another o rates of contracting sexually transmitted infections are highest in early 20s  as well as any kinds of substance abuse o Health promotion: efforts to reduce health problems in young people through encouraging changes in the behaviors that put young people at risk  Driving at high speeds  Having unprotected sex  Binge drinking Primary Sex Characteristics  Primary sex characteristics: production of eggs and sperm and the development of the sex organs  Secondary sex characteristics: bodily changes of puberty not directly related to reproduction  Egg and Sperm Production o Women are born with 400,000 immature eggs in each ovary  Puberty this number is 80,000  When a girl reaches menarche  Menarche: first menstrual cycle  One egg develops into a mature egg (ovum) every 28 days  Releasing about 400 eggs over the course of their lives o Men are born with 0 sperm  Do not produce until they reach puberty  Spermarche: first production of sperm  Around 12  After 20-500 million sperms produced during ejaculation o Millions produced per day  The Male and Female Reproductive Anatomy o Puberty for males  Penis and testes grow substantially  Penis x2 in length and diameter  Testes increase 2 ½ times in length and 8 ½ times in weight CHAPTER 3: Cogitative Foundations Adolescents and Emerging Adults All Over  Cognitive development: changes over time in how people think, how they solve problems, and how their capacities for memory and attention change.  Jean Piaget’s Theory o General changes in mental structures and problem-solving abilities that take place during childhood and adolescence  Information Processing Approach o Detailed examination of specific cognitive abilities such as attention and memory


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