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CHS 200 notes Chapters 16 and 20

by: Shelby Sauer

CHS 200 notes Chapters 16 and 20 CHS 200

Shelby Sauer
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

These notes go over the big points for chapters 16 and 20. Anything that is highlighted was specifically noted by Dr. Hamill as material that will be on the exam or were on the quizzes.
Introduction to Public Health Biology
Dr. Logan Hamill
Class Notes
community, health, Science, immunizations, Vaccines, colon, cancer
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Sauer on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHS 200 at University of Nevada Reno taught by Dr. Logan Hamill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health Biology in Biology, Chemistry, Community Health Sciences, Core Humanities, Nutrition at University of Nevada Reno.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
CHS 200 Chapters 16 & 20 Note: Anything that is highlighted was either on a quiz or specifically noted by Dr. Hamill as  content that will be on the exam. So know these! Chapter 16  Innate Immune System: present from birth and provides the first line of defense against  infectious agents o Nonspecific defense (any organism that isn’t recognized as part of your body or is abnormal will be phagocytized)  o Anatomical and physiological barriers create an environment inhospitable to  invading organisms  o Physiological Barriers: Acidity and chemical barriers o Inflammation: Antibacterial activity and stimulate phagocytosis o Anatomical Barriers: Skin and mucosal membranes o Phagocytic Cells: Neutrophils and macrophages o Natural Killer Cells: Possess cytotoxic activity against tumor cells and some  virus­infected cells  Adaptive Immune System: activation of immune cells and development of substances  that will aid in the elimination of organisms an facilitate the development of  immunological memory o Specificity for the foreign agent (antigens) o Humoral Immunity: B lymphocytes­production of antibodies and memory cells o Cell­mediated Immunity: T­lymphocytes­cell­to­cell contacts, secretion of soluble products and memory cells  Active Immunity: an immunocompetent individual is exposed to a foreign organism and  the person’s immune cells respond by producing immune products such as antibodies and memory cells o May be acquired naturally (infection) or artificially (vaccine)   Passive Immunity: Transfer of performed antibodies to an individual to protect them  against a challenge o Provides short­term protection. Memory cells are not formed  o May be acquired naturally (maternal­fetal transfer) or induced (injection of  immunoglobulin)  o Injecting an individual is primarily done to someone who was not previously  immunized  Vaccines: attempt to stimulate the immune system by mimicking a natural infection o Stimulates memory T and B cells in an individual to induce specific immunity,  eliminate organisms that enter the host, and neutralize bacterial toxins  Attenuated Vaccine: contains weakened form of live organisms o Produces strong cellular and humoral response o Retains similar characteristics to the original organism but lacks pathogenicity  Inactivated Vaccines: created by treating the microorganisms with chemicals or heat o Stable and safer than live vaccines o Stimulate a weaker response  Toxoid Vaccines: created by treating bacterial toxins with formaldehyde o Renders toxins harmless but maintains immunogenicity o Stimulates a strong antibody response   Subunit Vaccines: Selected epitopes from the organism rather than the entire antigen o Contains vaccine adjuvants, usually aluminum salts, increase the length of star of  the antigen in the body so that the immune system has more time to respond to the presence of the antigen  Conjugate Vaccines: attempt to strengthen the immunogenicity of some organisms with  polysaccharide capsule o Stimulate strong immune response  o Antigen­protein complex becomes more readily recognizable by the immune  system so that a strong response is made   Future Vaccines:  o DNA: use organism’s genes to invoke antigen expression in host.  o Recombinant Vector: use attenuated organism to introduce organism’s DNA into  host o Hurdles to Vaccine Development: Mutation of organisms (viruses). Genetic  complexity of certain organisms  The number of reported cases of vaccine­preventable diseases has generally decreased  over the past several decades  The number of reported cases of measles, mumps, hepatitis A, and pertussis increased  over the same period  Vaccination too early following birth may be ineffective for some vaccines due to  protective effects of passively transferred maternal antibodies.  Chapter 20  Colon Cancer: is a neoplasm that starts in the large intestine (colon) or the rectum (end of the colon). This category of cancer is typically referred to as "colorectal cancer."  Leading causes of cancer­related deaths in the United States  There is no single cause of colon cancer  Nearly all colon cancers begin as benign polyps  Certain genetic syndromes also increase the risk of developing colon cancer  Rare familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome accounts for approx. 1% of cases  of colon cancer  HNPCC accounts for 5­10% of cases (non­polyposis colorectal cancer) also known as  Lynch Syndrome.  Signs and symptoms of colon cancer may include: A change in bowel habits, including  diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of stool for more than a couple of  weeks, Rectal bleeding or blood in stool (melena), Persistent abdominal discomfort, such  as cramps, gas or pain, Abdominal pain with a bowel movement , A feeling that your  bowel doesn't empty completely, Weakness or fatigue, Unexplained weight loss  Prevention: o Exercise o Low fat diet o Calcium Supplementation o Start yearly examinations at about 30 years old if you have family history o Anti­inflammatory medicines  As many as 50­60% of patients who had tumor removed will develop a recurrence  Men and women age 50 and older should have a colonoscopy


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