CHS 200 notes Chapters 16 and 20
CHS 200 notes Chapters 16 and 20 CHS 200
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Sauer on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHS 200 at University of Nevada Reno taught by Dr. Logan Hamill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health Biology in Biology, Chemistry, Community Health Sciences, Core Humanities, Nutrition at University of Nevada Reno.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
CHS 200 Chapters 16 & 20 Note: Anything that is highlighted was either on a quiz or specifically noted by Dr. Hamill as content that will be on the exam. So know these! Chapter 16 Innate Immune System: present from birth and provides the first line of defense against infectious agents o Nonspecific defense (any organism that isn’t recognized as part of your body or is abnormal will be phagocytized) o Anatomical and physiological barriers create an environment inhospitable to invading organisms o Physiological Barriers: Acidity and chemical barriers o Inflammation: Antibacterial activity and stimulate phagocytosis o Anatomical Barriers: Skin and mucosal membranes o Phagocytic Cells: Neutrophils and macrophages o Natural Killer Cells: Possess cytotoxic activity against tumor cells and some virusinfected cells Adaptive Immune System: activation of immune cells and development of substances that will aid in the elimination of organisms an facilitate the development of immunological memory o Specificity for the foreign agent (antigens) o Humoral Immunity: B lymphocytesproduction of antibodies and memory cells o Cellmediated Immunity: Tlymphocytescelltocell contacts, secretion of soluble products and memory cells Active Immunity: an immunocompetent individual is exposed to a foreign organism and the person’s immune cells respond by producing immune products such as antibodies and memory cells o May be acquired naturally (infection) or artificially (vaccine) Passive Immunity: Transfer of performed antibodies to an individual to protect them against a challenge o Provides shortterm protection. Memory cells are not formed o May be acquired naturally (maternalfetal transfer) or induced (injection of immunoglobulin) o Injecting an individual is primarily done to someone who was not previously immunized Vaccines: attempt to stimulate the immune system by mimicking a natural infection o Stimulates memory T and B cells in an individual to induce specific immunity, eliminate organisms that enter the host, and neutralize bacterial toxins Attenuated Vaccine: contains weakened form of live organisms o Produces strong cellular and humoral response o Retains similar characteristics to the original organism but lacks pathogenicity Inactivated Vaccines: created by treating the microorganisms with chemicals or heat o Stable and safer than live vaccines o Stimulate a weaker response Toxoid Vaccines: created by treating bacterial toxins with formaldehyde o Renders toxins harmless but maintains immunogenicity o Stimulates a strong antibody response Subunit Vaccines: Selected epitopes from the organism rather than the entire antigen o Contains vaccine adjuvants, usually aluminum salts, increase the length of star of the antigen in the body so that the immune system has more time to respond to the presence of the antigen Conjugate Vaccines: attempt to strengthen the immunogenicity of some organisms with polysaccharide capsule o Stimulate strong immune response o Antigenprotein complex becomes more readily recognizable by the immune system so that a strong response is made Future Vaccines: o DNA: use organism’s genes to invoke antigen expression in host. o Recombinant Vector: use attenuated organism to introduce organism’s DNA into host o Hurdles to Vaccine Development: Mutation of organisms (viruses). Genetic complexity of certain organisms The number of reported cases of vaccinepreventable diseases has generally decreased over the past several decades The number of reported cases of measles, mumps, hepatitis A, and pertussis increased over the same period Vaccination too early following birth may be ineffective for some vaccines due to protective effects of passively transferred maternal antibodies. Chapter 20 Colon Cancer: is a neoplasm that starts in the large intestine (colon) or the rectum (end of the colon). This category of cancer is typically referred to as "colorectal cancer." Leading causes of cancerrelated deaths in the United States There is no single cause of colon cancer Nearly all colon cancers begin as benign polyps Certain genetic syndromes also increase the risk of developing colon cancer Rare familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome accounts for approx. 1% of cases of colon cancer HNPCC accounts for 510% of cases (nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) also known as Lynch Syndrome. Signs and symptoms of colon cancer may include: A change in bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of stool for more than a couple of weeks, Rectal bleeding or blood in stool (melena), Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain, Abdominal pain with a bowel movement , A feeling that your bowel doesn't empty completely, Weakness or fatigue, Unexplained weight loss Prevention: o Exercise o Low fat diet o Calcium Supplementation o Start yearly examinations at about 30 years old if you have family history o Antiinflammatory medicines As many as 5060% of patients who had tumor removed will develop a recurrence Men and women age 50 and older should have a colonoscopy