Intro to Astro 103 Week 2 Notes
Intro to Astro 103 Week 2 Notes ASTR 103
Western Washington University
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anjali Grutzius on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 103 at Western Washington University taught by Mike Kraft in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 199 views. For similar materials see Intro to Astronomy in Astronomy at Western Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Astronomy 103 Week 2 9/26/16 Group Discussion -How does the process of science work? -What is the methodology of science? Theory: An explanation of natural phenomena that has been well substantiated through repeated observation and experiment. Hypothesis: An idea proposed to explain a natural phenomenon that has a basis in previous experience, observations or scientific background knowledge. Rationalize: Attempt to explain something in a way that makes it seem true or proper even if the justification is illogical. The Scale of the Universe –Space and Time How many dimensions can we directly observe? 4 (3 space and 1 time) Space Earth and the Moon are 30 Earth diameters apart. Sun is 109 Earths in diameter. 1 AU= astronomical unit= distance from the Sun to Earth= 150x10^6km C=Speed of light= 3.0x10^8m/s Light year= how far light travels in one year. 1 light year= 63241AU The closest star to Earth is 4.22 light years away. 9/27/16 Group Activity Day /Activity 1 from workbook - Mathematical and Scientific Methods -Steps 1,2,3 -Step 6 -Step 7 (#23,24,25) Graded on completion, not correctness. 9/28/16 Distance Measurements (metric system) 1 meter 1kilometer=1000m 1AU=1.5x10^8km Realms of the Universe Universe -> Local Super Cluster -> Local Group -> Milky Way Galaxy -> Solar System>Earth • Boundary between the Solar Wind and interstellar space (heliosphere) is around 100AU from the Sun. (200AU diameter) • Alpha Centuri Cluster, closest star to our solar system. • Milky Way Galaxy- 100,000 light years in diameter, over 200 billion stars in the Milky Way. • Local Group of Galaxies- 6.5 million light years in diameter • Local Super Cluster- 130 million light years in diameter, largest cluster is the Virgo cluster. • Watched a clip of Cosmos, Season 1, Episode 1 Scale of Space • Universe is 14 billion years old • Earth is 4.6 billion years old Kepler’s Three Laws: Planetary Motion • Earth’s movement in the solar system: revolves around the sun in an elliptical path, orbit looks closer to a circle. Law#1: All planets orbit in ellipses, with the Sun at one focus. A=semi major axis(half the long axis) c= half the separation of the ellipse’s two foci e= eccentricity(describes how non circular an orbit is. 0=perfect circle Perihelion: closest part of the orbit to the Sun Aphelion: farthest part of the orbit to the Sun C=0 means perfect circle no matter what a is. E=c/a Comets have higher eccentricity, where the ellipsoidal of their orbits is easier to see. Law#2: In its orbit, a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. When a planet is in the part of its orbit closer to the Sun, it moves more quickly. Law#3: Planet’s orbital periods increase with the semi major axis of the orbit. Planets farther from the Sun have larger orbital periods.
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