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Social Psychology Chapter 5 Notes

by: Donna Park

Social Psychology Chapter 5 Notes PSYC 360 001

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > Psychology > PSYC 360 001 > Social Psychology Chapter 5 Notes
Donna Park
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About this Document

These are Notes for Social Psychology Chapter 5.
Social Psychology
Amy Kathleen Heger (P)
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology, SocialPsychology, Psychology




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donna Park on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 360 001 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Amy Kathleen Heger (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 5  Self Concept – How we as individuals think about and perceive ourselves o Affect = self-esteem o Behavior = knowledge of actions o Cognitions = beliefs about self  Awareness of self develops ~ age 18-24 months  Primates, dolphins, elephants have self-concepts  Culture differences in defining self o Western Cultures  Independent view of self – Defining oneself in terms of one’s internal thoughts, feelings, and actions o Asian and non-Western Cultures  Interdependent view of self – Defining oneself in terms of relationships to other people  Gender Differences in Defining the Self o Women  Relational Interdependence – Focus more on close relationships (e.g., spouse, child, or close friend) in defining self o Men  Collective Interdependence – Focus more on memberships to larger groups (e.g., sports team fan)  Self Knowledge o Introspection – Consciously “looking inward” and examining one’s own thoughts, feelings, and motives  We don’t rely on it very often  Reasons for feelings/behaviors often outside conscious awareness  Can be wrong and actually hurt self-knowledge  It can be difficult to judge why we feel the way we do  How much does not getting sleep affect you?  Why are you in love with your partners?  Reasons generated attitude change – attitude change resulting from thinking of the reasons for one’s own attitudes  Self Awareness Theory – focusing attention on oneself to evaluate and compare one’s behavior to internal standards and values  Good: If it motivates planning and execution to get out of uncomfortable state  Bad: If one can’t change behavior o Can cause individuals to avoid self- awareness (e.g., drinking, drug abuse, binge eat) o Self Perception  Three domains where we self-perceive:  Attitudes  Motivation o Intrinsic Motivation – Desire to engage in activity because of personal enjoyment (and not because of external awards or pressures) o Extrinsic Motivation – Desire to engage in activity due to external rewards or pressures o Overjustification effect – Overestimating the extent to which one’s behavior is due to extrinsic, in comparison to intrinsic reasons  Emotions o Experience of emotion is similar to other types of self-perception o Infer our emotions by observing our behavior o Misattribution of arousal – mistakenly identifying the sense of what is making one feel the way they are o Self Knowledge  Social Comparison Theory – Learning about our abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people  Upward Social Comparison – Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are at a particular trait or ability  Downward Social Comparison – Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are at a particular trait or ability  Self Esteem – evaluations of our self-worth  High Self Esteem: viewing ourselves as good, competent and decent  Terror Management Theory – self-esteem protects individuals from terrifying thoughts about their own mortality  Narcissism – combination of excessive self-love and a lack of empathy towards others  Maintaining self esteem:  False consensus effect – overestimating how much others are like you  Unrealistic optimism – overestimating the likelihood that positive (rather than negative) things will happen to you  Impression Management – attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen  Ingratiation – using flattery or praise to make ourselves likeable to another person  Self Handicapping – creating obstacles and excuses for ourselves so if we do poorly on a task, we can avoid blaming ourselves  Self-Control – making choices about the present and plans for the future


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