Intro to Psych II Chapter 10
Intro to Psych II Chapter 10 1005
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Banks on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1005 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Mr. Skyler Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology 2 in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 10 - 9/26 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 10:33 AM Chapter 10: Development of Gender Identity 9/26 • Sex: biological status; male, female (anatomy) • Gender: psychological characteristics; thoughts, behaviors, emotions (what makes us, us) • Gender role: set of behaviors that are traditionally thought of as male or female ○ Examples: § Males play football § Females wear pink • Gender Identity: peoples' sense of being male or female § May or may not correspond to biological sex • Biological influences on Gender ○ A misconception is that gender differences don't exist until socializing and parenting ○ Infants as young as 1 year show preferences for gender -consistent toys § Infants as young as 3 months prefer to look at gender consistent toys § Even monkeys ○ Sex segregation shows that young children understand difference between genders § 3 year old boys hang out with boys, girls hang out with girls • Social Influence on Gender ○ Parents encourage gender -stereotyped behaviors § Achievement and independence for boys § Nurturance and dependence for girls ○ Teachers reinforce gender stereotypes too ○ Gender role socialization is usually stricter for boys (US) § Parents are more accepting of tomboyish behavior • Adolescence ○ Thought of as time of great turmoil § Conflict with parents § Risk taking § Beginning romantic relationships ○ 20% experience marked turmoil ○ Less skilled at controlling emotional reactions Conflict with parents § § Risk taking § Beginning romantic relationships ○ 20% experience marked turmoil ○ Less skilled at controlling emotional reactions § Problems are obvious • Identity development ○ Identity:sense of who we are, our goals and priorities • Erickson's Model of Identity ○ Personality develops through life at 8 stages ○ Each stage has a psychological crisis: § Dilemma concerning an individuals relations to other people ○ If you don't solve each crisis, you have trouble in the next • Emerging adulthood ○ 18-25 years old ○ Many aspects of emotional development ○ Identity and personality becomes solidified ○ Continued experimentation with roles • Moral Development ○ Ideas about right vs. wrong develop in toddler years ○ May be based in fear § Learn to associate right with reward and wrong with fear • Moral Dilemmas:situations in which there is no clear right and wrong answer • Piaget: ○ Moral development is limited by our cognitive development § Example: who's more to blame: □ Child breaks 10 glasses on accident □ Child breaks 1 glass on purpose ® 6-7 year olds say 10 glasses is wrong ® 12-13 year olds says 1 glass is wrong • Kohlberg's Moral Development ○ Uses several moral problems to see what principles people used to solve them § Focused on their rational in decision making, not the decision ○ Example: famous moral dilemma: § Should man steal meds, that he can't afford, to save his dying wife? □ 3 major stages 1. Preconventional: focus on punishment and reward 2. Conventional: focus on societal values 3. Post Conventional: focus on internal moral principles or what is right • Criticisms of Kohlberg's theory ○ Cultural Bias Individualistic vs. collectivist cultures 2. Conventional: focus on societal values 3. Post Conventional: focus on internal moral principles or what is right • Criticisms of Kohlberg's theory ○ Cultural Bias § Individualistic vs. collectivist cultures ○ Sex Bias § Justice vs. caring orientations □ Low correlation with moral behavior □ Confounded with verbal intelligence □ Assumes moral reasoning precedes emotional reaction to moral issues • Life Transitions into Adulthood ○ Careers and jobs satisfaction § Large source of anxiety § 1 career used to be the norm □ Now we have 10.5 job changes between 18 & 40 ○ U shape curve of satisfaction § People tend to be most satisfied with their careers at the beginning and at the end ○ Love and commitment § Physical and emotional intimacy □ Greater physical health and lower stress § Higher levels of happiness than singles § Greater than 50% of US adults are married □ Majority of people enter long -term relationships at some point • Parenthood - big transition ○ Requires change in schedule § Reduction of sleep and balancing ○ Realistic expectations predict better adjustment ○ Marital satisfaction drops in first few years, rebound in school age ○ Life satisfaction doesn't drop • Midlife Transitions ○ Midlife Crisis:phase of adulthood characterized by emotional distress about the aging process and an attempt to regain youth § Stereotypical § Myth: most men don't do this • Empty nest syndrome: depression in mothers following the departure of their grown children from home ○ Shift in role and amount of free time takes adjustment ○ Mostly overstated ○ Women who have careers, hobbies, social circles experience less • Later years • Empty nest syndrome: depression in mothers following the departure of their grown children from home ○ Shift in role and amount of free time takes adjustment ○ Mostly overstated ○ Women who have careers, hobbies, social circles experience less • Later years ○ Men: 75.3 years ○ Women: 80.4 years § Most stay active • Biological:how well our body is functioning • Psychological: mental attitude and agility • Functional: ability to perform roles • Social:behaving appropriately for age
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