Intro to Psych II Chapter 12 Notes
Intro to Psych II Chapter 12 Notes 1005
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Banks on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1005 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Mr. Skyler Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology 2 in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 12 - 9/26 & 9/28 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 9:46 AM Chapter 12: Stress, Coping, and Health 9/26 • Stress:the tension, discomfort or physical symptoms that arise when a stressor strains our ability to cope effectively • Traumatic Event:stressor so severe that it can produce long term psychological or health consequences • 3 approaches to stress 1. Stressors as a stimuli § What types of events cause stress □ Identify events and people that react more strongly 2. Stress as a response § Assess psychological and physical reactions to stress □ Psychological reactions ® Depression, hopelessness, hostility □ Physical reactions ® Increased heart rate □ Positive reactions ® Disasters impacting an entire community can increase social awareness and cement bonds ◊ Example: 9/11 } Increased teamwork, love, gratitude ◊ Temporary 3. Stress as a transaction approach § Examines how people interpret and cope with stress § Whether we experience an event as stressful depends on appraisal □ Primary appraisal: initial decision whether event is harmful or not □ Secondary appraisal: perceptions regarding our ability to cope with an event ○ Believing we can't cope = stress reaction ○ Believing we can cope = problem focused or emotion focused coping § Problem-focused coping: taking the problem head on □ Example: loss of job ® Coping making new resume, setting up interviews cope with an event ○ Believing we can't cope = stress reaction ○ Believing we can cope = problem focused or emotion focused coping § Problem-focused coping: taking the problem head on □ Example: loss of job ® Coping making new resume, setting up interviews § Emotion focused copinga:dopting a positive outlook on stressful situations and attempting to reduce painful situations □ Example: loss of job ® Tell yourself you will get another • Measuring stress ○ Social readjustment rating scale § Ranks 43 particularly stressful events § Number of major life events over past year is related to physical and psychological health (not perfect) § Neglects coping resources, interpretation and chronic stressors • Minor stressors ○ Hassles:minor annoyances that strain our ability to cope § Can impact us well § Number of hassles is positively related to illnesses, depression, and anxiety § Research shows this is true even when major life events are controlled • Mechanics of stress ○ General Adaptation Syndrome: pattern of response to stress in 3 stages 1. Alarm □ Walking home at night and hear something in the bushes Heart pounding, clammy hands ® □ Prepares to fight or flight response 2. Resistance □ You adapt and find ways to cope with the stressor ® Activation shifts to cerebral cortex so we can calm ourselves down and plan logical responses 3. Exhaustion □ In prolonged stressors, our resistance can break down ® Causes damage to organ systems, anxiety Chapter 12 - 9/28 • Diversity of Stress Responses ○ Women are more likely tt end and befriendthan males § Seek social support to get through hard times ○ They nurture (tend) or seek social support (befriend) when faced with a potentially dangerous situation ○ Operates in conjunction with fight or flight • Diversity of Stress Responses ○ Women are more likely tt end and befriendthan males § Seek social support to get through hard times ○ They nurture (tend) or seek social support (befriend) when faced with a potentially dangerous situation ○ Operates in conjunction with fight or flight § Together, the responses increase the odds of survival for their offspring ○ Long-lasting stress reactions can resn ute stress disordr r posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ○ PTSD Symptoms Intrusive symptoms : flashbacks, nightmares § § Avoidance: of thought or reminders § Change in thinking or mood; cant remember details, always scared § Hyperarousa:l trouble sleeping, exaggerated startle response ○ Resilience is the rule, not the exception! § PTSD lifetime prevalence rates are 5% in males and 10% in females § 65% of 9/11 survivors showed resilience 6 months later § 0.5% of children experience PTSD § 7% of Afghanistan and Iraq veterans • Psychological Responses Cause Physiological Responses! ○ 1962, Japanese Physicians conducted study 1st phase ○ § 13 boys (eye closed) told they were being rubbed with poison ivy § Was actually just a harmless plant § They all had skin reactions ○ 2nd phase § Rubbed with poison ivy, told them it was harmless § 11 of the 13 boys had no reaction! ○ Conclusion: psychological factors influence physical processes! ○ This is also true with stress which can weaken our body's defenses • The Immune System ○ Immune System:our body's defense against invading bacteria, viruses, and other potentially illness-producing organisms and substances ○ Consists of skin, and three types of white blood cells ○ Can be compromised via disorders like AIDS • Psychoneuroimmunology ○ Psychoneuroimmunology: study of the relationship between the immune system and central nervous system (brain and spinal chord) § How does stress impact immune system functioning? ○ There is much evidence that stress in linked to disruptions in immune system ○ Have to be careful about exaggerated claims like positive thinking healing cancer ○ Examples: § High levels of stress over the past year make you more susceptible to § How does stress impact immune system functioning? ○ There is much evidence that stress in linked to disruptions in immune system ○ Have to be careful about exaggerated claims like positive thinking healing cancer ○ Examples: High levels of stress over the past year make you more susceptible to § catching a cold virus § Caring for someone with Alzheimer's is associated with lower ability to heal from injury and decrease blood clotting ○ Other events that disrupt immune system: § Taking important tests § Unemployment § Natural disasters § Death of loved one • Stress-Related Illnesses ○ Myth: many physical ailments (like ulcers) are caused by mental states Psychosomatic illness: a condition or illness caused by psychological factors, like ○ stress ○ Psychophysiological illness: Authentic illnesses that emotions and stress contribute to or maintain § Asthma § Headaches § Coronary heart disease § AIDS ○ The relationship between stress and disease is bidirectional ○ Biopsychosocial perspectiv-Many illnesses are a blend of the physical and psychological • Coronary Heart Disease ○ Psychological factors (like stress and personality) are risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) § The complete or partial blockage of the arteries, by cholesterol (fat) that provide oxygen to the heart ○ Top cause of death and disability in the US ○ Associated with a number of factors, especially stress ○ Aspects of a Type A personalplace one at high risk for CHD, especially anger and hostility ○ CHD risk is also associated with experiences of discrimination and being treated unfairly ○ Lower socioeconomic status also places one at heightened risk due to lowered ability to cope with stressors • Coping with Stress ○ Social supportencompasses interpersonal relations with people, groups, and the larger community § Can provide emotional comfort, financial assistance help with making decisions and solving problems ability to cope with stressors • Coping with Stress ○ Social supportencompasses interpersonal relations with people, groups, and the larger community § Can provide emotional comfort, financial assistance help with making decisions and solving problems § Can help us co[e with short-term crises and protects against depression • Social Support Leads to Longer Life ○ Berkman & Syme (1979) studied whether social support buffers negative impact of stress on health ○ House, Robbins, & Metzner (1982) § Made 2,700 participants get medical exams first § Same findings --> less social support led associated with higher mortality • Gaining Control ○ Stress can also be relieved by gaining control of a situation ○ 5 types of control § Behavioral Control: □ Ability to do something to reduce the impact of a stressful situation or prevent its recurrence □ Problem focused coping is more effective than avoidance -oriented coping □ Example: ® I am stressed about an impending exam ® I setup a plan, study 10 -15 pages of text a night and attend a study group § Cognitive Control □ Ability to think differently about negative emotions that arise in response to stres-provoking events □ Includes emotion-focused coping □ Especially helpful in situations we can't control or change □ Examples: ® Pilot study (Strentz & Auerbach, 1988) ® Apollo the dog losing his tennis ball § Decisional Control □ Ability to choose among alternative courses of action □ Example: ® I have to have a dangerous operation, but I get to choose the surgeon ® I have to take a very difficult stats class to graduate, but I get to choose between several § Informational Control □ Ability to acquire information about a stressful event ® Example: I experience stress because I have to take the SAT's, but I get information about the format, length, subjects ® I have to take a very difficult stats class to graduate, but I get to choose between several Informational Control § □ Ability to acquire information about a stressful event ® Example: I experience stress because I have to take the SAT's, but I get information about the format, length, subjects tested, and question types □ Allows for proactive coping □ Proactive coping: anticipation of problems and stressful situations and take steps to minimize difficulties before they arise § Emotional Control □ The ability to suppress and express emotions ® Expressing emotions example: journaling about traumatic events lessens the negative impacts ® Suppressing emotions example: concealing fear of a crowd ◊ It's helpful to conceal the visible response, not to avoid the emotion all together
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