Gen Bio - Unit 2 - Chapter 6 - 9/26
Gen Bio - Unit 2 - Chapter 6 - 9/26 BIOL 2051
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Banks on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2051 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Dr. Laurel Beck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biology at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Unit 2 - Chapter 6 - 9/26 Monday, September 26, 2016 1:57 PM ○ Exergonic reaction § Spontaneous reaction □ Energy releasing □ Products have less energy than reactants □ - G ○ Endergonic reaction § Nonspontaneous reaction □ Energy consuming □ Products have more energy than the reactants □ + G • ATP and enzymes ○ Glucose catabolism as an example § Is it exergonic or endergonic? □ Exergonic because it releases energy ○ Many chemical reactions are endergonic § Require energy to proceed as written □ Typically from hydrolysis of ATP or adenosine triphosphate ® ATP hydrolysis provides the energy for cellular processes that are endergonic ○ Coupled reactions Will take place when you run an exergonic & endergonic reaction at § the same time □ Use that energy from the exergonic reaction that got released to power the endergonic reaction ○ Even exergonic reactions often neea talyst § speed up the rate of a chemical reaction □ Facilitates the rate at which the reaction happens ○ Many biological catalysts are enzymes § Made of protein (sometimes RNA too) § Help speed along the rate of chemical reactions in a cell § How do enzymes work? □ Lower activation energy ® Makes it energetically easier for a reaction to occur □ Activation energy ® Base-level kinetic energy needed to overcome transition state § How do enzymes work? □ Lower activation energy ® Makes it energetically easier for a reaction to occur □ Activation energy ® Base-level kinetic energy needed to overcome transition state ® An enzyme strains reactant molecules and bring them closer together ® Must get reactants to interact with each other just right ○ Special part of the enzyme binds the substrate (reactant) § Active site □ Specialized pocket of specific amino acids on the enzyme itself that interact with specific substrates □ Enzymes active site has substrate specificity ○ Not a perfect fit between substrate and active site § Both change their shapes slightly □ Model of induced fit ® Helps strain the bonds in the reactants ◊ Makes it easier for the reaction to proceed (lower the activation energy) ○ The catalytic cycle 1. Reactants have to bind to the active site 2. Enzyme goes through a conformational change □ Go through to process of induced fit, this lowers the activation energy 3. Reactants are converted to products 4. Products are released □ Causes the enzyme to return to its initial conformation ○ Enzymes are proteins…what might influence their ability to do their jobs? § Dramatic changes in pH and temperature
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