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ENV 101 notes, week 5

by: Megan Paduganan

ENV 101 notes, week 5 ENV101

Marketplace > Northern Arizona University > Science > ENV101 > ENV 101 notes week 5
Megan Paduganan

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Habitat Fragmentation
Environmental Challenges and Solutions
Kerry Grimm
Class Notes
Life Science, Science, habitat
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Paduganan on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENV101 at Northern Arizona University taught by Kerry Grimm in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Environmental Challenges and Solutions in Science at Northern Arizona University.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Env 101 Notes Habitat Fragmentation Week 5 9/20/16 Habitat loss v Fragmentation  Loss – all is gone  Fragmentation – into pieces  Isolation of habitat patches  Greater difference among patches  Increased edge effects o Animals that live in the core habitat will not have as much room to live and grow o Species on the edge will go and take room from the core because now they technically are on the edge Habitat fragmentation  Impacts o Increased impacts for edge species o Reduced abilities for species (large) to migrate  Mountain Lions o More and more Mountain lions are being seen because of habitat encroachment o Increased aggression o Inbreeding which leads to decreased genetic diversity Conservation Biology  Ecosystem diversity: number and variety of ecosystems, communities, habitats, landscapes  Species Diversity: number and variety of species o Species: distinct type of organism  Unique characteristics and fertile offspring  Genetic Diversity: variation in DNA composition among individuals of the same species Importance of Biodiversity  Biodiversity is one of our most crucial natural resources o Funguses on different types of food o Pharmaceuticals have plant origins o Ecosystems can function  Ecosystem Services o Fisheries o Recreation o Water provision and purification Definitions  Extinction: loss of entire species from planet o Dodo birds, passenger pigeons  Extirpation: Disappearance of a particular population from a given area, not species globally o Wolves in Yellowstone park, Bengal tiger  Endemic species: species found nowhere else in the world, only in one place o Kaibab Squirrel  Biodiversity Hotspot: area that supports high number of species o Occur: near coast, warmer areas o Biodiversity decreases as you move poleward or up in elevation 9/22/16 Conservation Biology Current extinction rates are higher than normal  The Red List: international list of species facing high risk of extinction o In the US in the last 500 years, 236 animals and 17 plant species are confirmed extinct  Background: normal extinction of species  Mass: 50-90% of species wiped out o Why mass extinction now?  Habitat Loss  Pollution  Overharvesting  Invasive species  Climate change Loss of biodiversity  Extinction & Extirpation of 1 species impacts many Endangered species in AZ  California Condor  Humpback Chub  Kanab Amber Snail  Gray Wolf  Sonoran Pronghorn  Yuma Clapper Rail  Southwest willow flycatcher Conservation Biology  Discipline devoted to understanding factors, forces, and processes that influence loss, protections, and restoration of biodiversity o Values and ethical standards involved o Goal oriented and applied Ways to address biodiversity loss  Laws and Treaties o Endangered Species Act (1973): protects species that are endangered or threatened  Habitat protection  Regulates hunting o CITES: banning international transport of endangered species o Treaties are not legally binding and they are voluntary  Create black market o Convention on Biological Diversity: Conserve biodiversity  Use it sustainably  Fair distribution among people and countries  Protected areas o Large ones can protect whole ecosystems o Hard to enforce  Poaching  Mining o Can be expensive o Some aren’t big enough for protection o “paper parks”: only exists on paper o Biospheres: a monitored version of a protected area but with human settlement  Corridors o Tie together smaller areas so they act time larger contiguous areas o Cheaper than large parks o Often less controversial o Allows for human development and increases home values o Umbrella species: by protecting one species, other species are protected as well  Community-based conservation o Creates jobs o Local people have a say o Local ecological knowledge  Ecological Restoration o Bring back plants and animals o Restore degraded ecosystems o Reestablish ecosystem processes and services o Can protect plants, animals, and ecosystems o Can be expensive o Time-intensive o Difficult o Restore to what?  Species Restoration and Captive Breeding o Can bring species back o Some species don’t breed well in captivity o Habitat loss o Invasives o California Condors  1982 only 22 birds worldwide  Today around 400 (1/2 in the wild)


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