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Chapter 5: Reinforcement

by: Brittany Woody

Chapter 5: Reinforcement EAB3002

Marketplace > University of Florida > EAB3002 > Chapter 5 Reinforcement
Brittany Woody

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Notes for module/chapter 5, reinforcement
Principles of Behavior Analysis
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAB3002 at University of Florida taught by Stagner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 5 Reinforcement - Edward Thorndike: interest in animal intelligence; tests on chicks in mazes; then tested cats, dogs, and monkeys with puzzle boxes (animal must use latch to get out of box) - Cat used trial and error to figure out how to get out; once it learns how to get out, it can do it quickly; action becomes stamped into the mind when it is reinforced (food, in this example) - Solving using insight would result in one moment where something is figured out, then it can be done in very little time in the future; learning is slower decrease is time needed to figure out task instead of sharp drop - Law of Effect: responses closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will be more firmly connected with the situations that when it reoccurs, they will be more likely to reoccur - Trial and success, not trial and error; analogy to natural selection, successful things are passed on - Skinner used operant container and rats; studied stream of behavior, different from Thorndike, which only had one action (getting out of box); allows us to measure over time; free operant trials; Thorndike used discrete trials - Operant behavior is behavior that operates on effects the environment; change in likelihood of a behavior due to its consequences - Reinforcer: stimulus or event that increases or maintain the strength of the behavior upon which they are contingent; to be reinforcer: • behavior has consequences • behavior increases in strength/ frequency increase in strength due to consequence (reinforcement) • - Primary reinforcer: stimuli that are naturally or innately reinforcing; don’t need to be taught; food, water, sexual stimulation - Secondary reinforcers are associated through conditioning; money, paints, grades 1 - Primary reinforcers are situation dependent; food is effective if you are hungry, for example; can satiate (individual will eventually be full); disrupts/ changes behavior - Contiguity: time between response and consequence - Schlinger and Blakely: manipulated delay between response and consequence; more responses with shorter times (contiguity); shorter interval results in faster learning; shorter interval is better for maintaining behavior; other behaviors occur in longer intervals - Contingency: degree to which consequence depends on result; does consequence sometimes occur without response?; Hammond didn’t give food after every lever press; higher contingency: more lever presses; zero contingency: very little lever pressing - Breaking the response-consequence contingency ill disrupt behavior - Pavlovian contingency has two-term contingency: if CS, then US; proceeds independent of behavior; passive learning; involuntary (blinking, salivation, etc) - Operant has three-term contingency; in presence of antecedent (discriminative stimulus), if behavior (response), then consequence (reinforcer); dependent on behavior; active learning; voluntary (winking, eating, etc) - Reinforcement increases rate of response - Positive reinforcer: something added; appearance of this stimulus or event increases or maintains response; not all rewards are reinforcing, not all reinforcers and rewards; giving a child money for good grades - Negative reinforcer: stimulus or event removal of which increases or maintains the rate of the response upon which it is contingent; escape- avoidance learning: one escapes the presence of a stimulus; negative reinforcement is not punishment, behavior is strengthened; child does not have to do chores because they got good grades - Drive-reduction theory: Clark Hull; reinforcement works because it reduces drives; drives for food, water, sleep, etc are reduced by reinforcers • does not work for non-innate/ secondary reinforcers; some do not reduce drive and are not associated with primary reinforcer; requires an assumption of unquantifiable drives 2 - Premack Principal/ Relative Value Theory: David Premack; reconceptualized reinforces as behavior; food isn’t reinforcers, eating food in reinforcers; in any situation, some behaviors are more likely than others, eating is more likely than lever pressing; thus, different behaviors have different relative values (probabilities); can be determined by allowing free access and measuring rates; no assumption of drives or internal concepts; high probability behavior will reinforce low probability behavior; access to a preferred behavior is contingent on a non-proffered behavior • testing: drinking is higher probability than rat running in a wheel; make water contingent on running; result is more running - Response Deprivation Theory: Timberlake and Allison: builds off Premack Principal; all behaviors occur at some frequency (reduce from baseline); if access is restricted to below baseline, access will serve as a reinforcer; running access is deprived, running access is contingent on drinking, drinking yields wheel access, result is more drinking - Shuttle-box escape/ avoidance: Solomon and Wynne: dog in divided box; dog is on the side with the light on; when light is turned off, dog is shocked ten seconds later and dog jumps to other side; eventually dog jumps when light is turned off • Pavlovian: CS is light off with US shock, UR is fear; CS yields UR • Operant: Stimulus is lights off, response is jump, yields education of fear Jumping to other side reduces fear; escape should slow until the dog is shocked • again but does not happen; avoidance behavior is persistent, dog will always jump • Fear is being removed when the dog jumps - Escape and avoidance is reinforced by reduction of aversive stimulation; nothing happening is sometimes reinforcing - Hernstein and Hineline: rats in chamber with lever press; when rat presses lever more, there are shocks less often; lever press rates is high to avoid more shocks 3


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