PGS 222 Chapter 2
PGS 222 Chapter 2 PGS 222
Popular in Human Sexual Behavior
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PGS 222 at Arizona State University taught by Spencer in Spring 2012. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychology (PSYC) at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
PGS 222 Chapter 2 Research -Sexology -The study of sexology -Goal: -Understand sexual behavior -Predict sexual behavior -Control/influence sexual behavior -Ethical considerations when “controlling behavior” -Summary of Research Methods -Case study -Survey -Direct observation -Experimental method -Non-Experimental Research Methods: Case Studies -Single subject or small group -Advantages -Unique in-depth information about atypical cases or behavior -Disadvantages -Hard to generalize results -Often based on retrospective self-report -Not suitable for many research questions -Non-Experimental Research Methods: Survey Methods -Small or large samples of people -Face to face interviews or questionnaires -Can be computerized or distributed online -Choosing the sample -Representative sample -Random sample -Advantages -Questionnaires: anonymity may improve honesty, cheaper -Interviews: more flexible, rapport, may improve clarity & understanding -Disadvantages -Self-selection & non-response -Demographic bias -Same distortion biases as case study (self-report) -Survey examples -The Kinsey Reports -Collected 733 sex histories by 1939 -Developed interview survey of 521 questions -Samples: disproportionate number of better educated people living in cities, no minorities -1948: Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, based on interviews with 5300 males -1953: Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, based in interviews with 5900 females -“Shocking findings” -92% of males, 62% females masturbated -Nearly 50% of females experienced premarital intercourse -37% of all males had some homosexual experience between adolescence and old age -Kinsey scale of sexual orientation: 7-point scale, hetero 0 to homo 6 -The National Health and Social Life Survey -Inspired by AIDS outbreak -79% response rate, representative sample of U.S., except for Asians, Jews, & Native Americans -3432 interviews -Elucidated effect of ethnicity on: number of partners, likelihood of choosing sex partners from same ethnic group, oral & anal sex, masturbation, experience with coercive sex -The Youth Risk Behavior Survey -Violent Pornography and Alcohol Use Survey -Non-Experimental Research Methods: Direct Observation Studies -Small to moderate samples -Reliability increases with sample and accuracy of recording devices -Advantages -Eliminates possibility of falsification -Records can be kept indefinitely -Disadvantages -Self-selection, reactivity, expense -Masters and Johnson: hundreds of people come into lab to “be sexual” -1957-1965 -382 women, 312 men, over 10,000 complete cycles of sexual response, ages 18- 89, gay & straight -Artificial coition machine -Blood pressure & heart rate observed via one-way mirrors -Tea Room Trade -Laud Humpphries: priest, married to woman for 20 years, doctoral dissertation, homosexual -Stood at restroom door taking down license plate numbers to get names and addresses of people in and out of restroom -Conducted 50 interviews each in tea rooms & in homes -More than 50% were outwardly heterosexual & didn’t consider themselves homosexual -38% was Catholic or wives were & sex was cut out after 1 child -Only 14% were openly homosexual -Doctoral dissertation. Reviewed only by his committee. -Degree taken away, several faculty left University -Correlational Research -Reveals strength of relationship between two variables, ranges from -1.0 to +1.0, 0= no relationship -Third-variable problems -Careful not to assume causality -To study variables that can’t be manipulated (historical, unethical) -Definitions -Target pop: population you want to study, from which sample will be drawn & to which sample data will be generalized -Representative sample: sample “represents” target population -Random sampling: everyone in target population has equal chance of getting into sample- this should produce a representative sample -Convenience sample: whatever individuals available (e.g., PGS 101 pool, magazines) -Accuracy of Self-Report -Non-purposeful distortion -Memory problems -Difficulty putting numbers into behaviors -Purposeful distortion -Minimizing -Maximizing -Social desirability -The Experimental Method: Procedures -Small to moderate samples -The “independent variable” manipulated -Changes in “dependent variable” measured -Reliability and validity increase with -Random selection & assignment -Advantages -Lowers influence of other variables -Can establish cause-effect relationships -Disadvantages -Being measured may affect actions -Artificiality of laboratory setting -Technologies in Sex Research -Electronic devices for measuring sexual arousal -Penile strain gauge measures slightest change in penis size -Vaginal photoplethysmograph measures increased vaginal blood volume, vaginal/rectal -Computer Assisted Self-Interview (CASI) -Eliminates literacy issues and negative impact of interviewer; Participants may prefer over face to face interview -Research in Cyberspace -Advantages -Cheaper, more efficient, nearly limitless survey pool -Disadvantages -Sample selection bias, low response rates, privacy & ethical issues -Ethical Guidelines for Human Sex Research -No pressure or coercion for participation -Informed consent and voluntary participation -Confidentiality and anonymity -Question on deception -Institutional ethics review -Evaluating Research: Questions to Ask -Why was the research done? Who did the research? What biases are there? -Who were the participants? How were they selected & assigned to groups? -How was the research conducted? What methods were used? -Where was the research reported? What additional support is there? -Types of Observational Research -With intervention -Participant observation -Researcher participates -Structured observation -Under controlled setting -Field experiments -Tuskegee Syphilis Report -Between 1932 & 1972 -399 impoverished African-American sharecroppers with syphilis -Failed to treat with penicillin -When study started, standard treatment for syphilis toxic, dangerous & of questionable effectiveness -Led to establishment of Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) -Manages human subject protections within the US Dept of Health & Human Services (HHS) -Led to fed. regulation requiring any institution that received federal funds have Institutional Review Boards for protection of human subjects -By 1972, 74 subjects alive. 28 died of syphilis. 100 dead of related complications. 40 wives infected. 19 children born with congenital syphilis. -NAACP filed class action law suit. US gov’t paid $9 million & agreed to treat subjects & family members -1997: Bill Clinton held formal apology ceremony -1990 study: 34% believed AIDS was an artificial virus. 35% believed AIDS is a form of genocide. 44% believe gov’t is not telling truth about AIDS. -Less likely to get preventative care. Be organ donors. -Validity & Reliability -Validity: how valid is measurement? Does it measure what you want it to measure? -External validity: extent to which results are generalizable -Internal validity: rigor of design and extent to which researchers have entertained alternative explanations for results -Reliability: how reliable is measurement? If you administered test again, would they score similarly?
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