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NUFS 16 Ch4 Notes

by: Micaela Bumanglag

NUFS 16 Ch4 Notes NUFS 016

Micaela Bumanglag
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About this Document

These notes cover the basics for chapter 4 on dietary recommendations
Science, Physiology, and Nutrition
Irene Chou
Class Notes
nutrition, dietary, recommendations




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Micaela Bumanglag on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUFS 016 at San Jose State University taught by Irene Chou in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Science, Physiology, and Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at San Jose State University.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
Ch4 Dietary Recommendations Essential Nutrients • definition: substance needed in the diet for health, normal development & reproduction • what is needed & how much varies between each person & exposure i.e. vitamin D is made in skin exposed to sunlight (ultraviolet light) — people that get enough  sun don’t need D in their diet, but people that don’t do need D in their diet Water • isn't generally a nutrient, but definitely essential • dehydration: body doesn’t have enough water • don’t overdo the water — too much will dilute sodium in blood to too low levels • for most athletic endeavors of less than 90min, plain water is all that’s needed — sports  drinks don’t do shit; only actually helpful in activities longer than 90min Energy-providing Nutrients body get energy from carbs, fats, protein (and alcohol) • • carbs, fats, protein can all be broken down to a 2­carbon molecule: acetate; this is the  building block of body fat that stores excess calories carbohydrates fats linoleic acid (omega­6) linolenic acid (omega­3) protein histidine, isoleucine, leucine,  lysine, methionine,  phenylalanine, threonine,  tryptophan, valine minerals (major minerals) calcium,  (trace minerals) chromium,  chloride, magnesium,  copper, fluoride, iodine, iron,  phosphorus, potassium, sodium manganese, molybdenum,  selenium, zinc • Vitamins (Appendix A-5 p256-257) • water­soluble: C, B (thiamin B1, riboflavin B2, niacin, B6, folate, cobalamin B12, biotin,  pantothenic acid) • body gets rid of excess by peeing them out • fat­soluble: A, D, E, K • body can’t get rid of them the same way — more toxic in big doses Minerals • human body is mostly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen & nitrogen • excess minerals peed out of the body • sodium — easily absorbed • iron can be toxic, isn’t excreted in urine Determining Amounts Needed & Recommendations • nutrients of a specific person can’t be determined w/o measuring that person individually • individual requirements usually distributed in a bell­shaped “normal curve” • recommendations accommodate the average; people that fall higher or below the average  need adjust accordingly (i.e. door heights) • varies according to the country’s population & native diet but otherwise pretty similar • as countries develop: less dietary deficiencies, more chronic diseases related to excess  calories, solid fats & sodium and not enough fiber • leading causes of death: heart disease, cancer, diabetes Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) set up by the Food and Nutrition Board of National Academy of Sciences during WW2 • • has since expanded to plan & procure food for national defense • evaluates diets of various groups in US population, • establishes guidelines for food­assistance (i.e. school lunch programs) & food labels • develops nutrition policy & education programs • definition: the amounts of nutrients in the diet expected to meet the needs of virtually all  healthy people in the US; doesn’t quite cover the highest need, but still pretty close • NOT daily requirements; they are daily averages bc diets vary day to day • typically higher than the amounts actually required by the body bc the Board knew that people would fall short • different sets for different groups of people (growing, menstruating, pregnant, infants, etc.) • useful as applied to populations, NOT individuals Dietary Reference Intakes • new values in updated revisions: RDAs, ULs, EARS • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): amount beyond which adverse effects have been  known to occur Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) • Daily Values (DVs) • used for labeling food & dietary supplements; it’s a recommended amount • nutrient is given on the label as a percentage (% DV) • different sets: infants up to 12 mos. old, kids 1­4 yrs. old, pregnant women & reg adults • even more generous than RDAs • also includes reference values for dietary components like total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol,  fiber, sodium • food labels emphasize regulations for chronic diseases related to excess calories, solid fats &  sodium and not enough fiber • • recommends a certain number of servings (“cups”) per day for grains, veggies, fruits, dairy & protein (meat/meat­substitute) • serving sizes aren’t always realistic; somewhat  equivalent to certain nutrients Dietary Guidelines for Americans • U.S. Depts. of Agriculture and Health & Human Services established Dietary Guidelines  Advisory Committee in 1980 • revised every 5 yrs for people 2+ years old • Maintain calorie balance over time to achieve & sustain healthy weight — consume only  enough calories to meet your needs • Balancing calories: enjoy food but eat less, avoid oversizing, be active • Focus on consuming nutrient­dense foods & beverages — cut back on calories, sodium,  solid fat, added sugar & refined grains; replace w fruits & veggies • If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation • no more than 1 drink per day for women or 2 per day for men • 1 drink = 0.5 oz pure alcohol = a 12 oz can/bottle of beer; 5 oz table wine; 1.5 oz vodka,  rum, whisky, gin • it’s the overall diet, not individual foods, that’s good or bad Dietary Supplements • buy the least expensive pills; the body can’t tell the difference • not required to be proven safe & effective; may not even contain what it claims • nutrients can only cure what ails you if the ailment stems from deficiency of that nutrient • nutrients at extremely high doses act as drugs rather than nutrients • don’t blindly believe marketing!! • food is usually a better source of nutrients than supplements • will sometimes be fortified with vitamins (i.e. vitamins A & D are added to milk)


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