A/Hi 315 Week 2 Notes
A/Hi 315 Week 2 Notes A/HI 315
Western Washington University
Popular in Early Modern Civic Identity
Popular in Art History
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anjali Grutzius on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to A/HI 315 at Western Washington University taught by Javier Berzal de Dios in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Early Modern Civic Identity in Art History at Western Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
A/Hi 315 Week 2 9/26/16 • 120 islands, 400+ bridges connecting them • The Gran Canal- main water avenue • 6 districts (Sestieri, neighborhoods) Jacopo de Barberi, View of Venice, 1500 • Multiple sheets put together, huge map • Extremely detailed, mythological aspects, Poseidon (sea)/Mercury (commerce) • No mountains/no helicopters • Urban design in Renaissance • Perspective is different in each panel, boats not to scale • No bridge to mainland, showing separation Issues with the Map (Bronwer Wilson) 1. Terrafirma (mainland) vs. Island City 2. Particular vs. General 3. Geography vs. Chorography 4. Truth and Fiction (mythology) • Celebration of the city of Venice • Unique to Venetians • Venice comes first, no monarchy How Venice was built • Started as a marshy lagoon • Not a floating city • Man made city. Not much actual soil • Shows how stubborn Venetians are • Drove oak, wooden pikes into the soil, hundreds of them. • Layer of wood and brick above the pikes until the water level for buildings. • Built in an impossible spot, constant difficulty. Histor y of Venice • Venice is an Italian city that did not exist during the Roman Empire. • Roman Empire divided, first in 337 and then in 395. • 400s- Italy was invaded by the Goths in 410 and then by the Huns in 451. • Venice exists as part of their reaction to the fall of the Roman Empire. • Citizens moved away from mainland during the invasions. They began to stay in the islands instead of moving back and forth. There was no escape from them. Invaders had horses, couldn’t reach them on the islands. • Traditional date of Venice foundation: March 25 421. (Feast of the Annunciation) Three Roman councilers sent from Padua to the Rialto to found a trading post. • Goths took over most of the Italian peninsula. The Ostrogoth’s King was Theodoric, base in Ravenna. • C.530 firs historical evidence of Venice: Cassiodorus writes to the Maritime Tribunes requesting support in transportation of goods. • Letter shows different traits of Venice: -city of equality –no one leader – colony of focused farming –these inhabitants are different – conquering/control nature –utopic freedom – respect from the beginning • Venice= Rome and Fallen • Ostrogoths trying to form an alliance w/Venice • Venice has a navy (military/mercantile) belongs to the state. • Lombard’s invade Italian peninsula on 568, first to try and seize Venice. • Venice protected by the lagoon, treacherous, sea markers. • Hard to get the army to Venice through the water • 639-Torcello Church first built • 726- First historically known Doge, Orso I pato Doge. (political leader, Duke, that doesn’t have any power) Primus Inter Pares, first among equals. Arengo/Concio= council, everybody else. • Charlemange became the Holy Roman Emperor and tries to control Venice/invade. He got very close but again got stuck in the lagoon surrounding Venice. They remained independent. Piazza San Marco • Saint Mark’s Basilica • Palace of the Doge • 2 columns, one with the symbol of St. Mark (Lion with wings) and other with St. Theodore (Byzantines gave him to Venice). • 828-829: The body of St. Mark brought to Venice. He was found in Alexandria. The translation of his body brought gravitas to Venice, they had the most important relic in their city at the time. His body wanted to move to Christian land. Alexandria was under Islamic rule at the time. The Venetians hid the body under lots of pork to bring it to Venice. • 832- Chapel of St. Mark built (lost now) St. Mark becomes the symbol of Venice. His mark is the lion with wings, sometimes shown with a book. “Pax tibi Marce, evangelista meus. Hic requiescat corpus tuum” An angel told Mark he belonged in Venice. The Crusades 1096-1204 • Venice became rich, the Crusaders would stop in the city for supplies and trading. • Venetians convinced the Crusader Kings during the fourth crusade to attack Constantinople instead of Jerusalem. That gave Venice more profits and allowed them to take high pieces of value from Constantinople. –Bronze Horses of San Marco 1 century –Byzantine art th 10-11 century –Glass cup, Byzantine –The tetrarchs, porphyry sculpture • Began the idea that the city didn’t have to look super composed. Political History • Doge-figure head, has no political power. 99.9% kneeling always in representation, he serves Venice. • Before 1297: Politics included the Doge and the Arengo • Doge had a special hat called the Cornu and also was on the gold coin of Bartolomeo Gradenigo (1260-1342) 1297: Serrata (class system) 1. Patrician nobility: (5%)- Great Concil: rules Venice, elects Doge, red robes, Golden book 2. Cittadini originari: (5%)- Silver book, black clothes, Scuole 3. Popolani: (90%)- craftsman like glassman and arsenaloti • Doge Palace: Chamber of the Great Concil • 15 June 1310- Majamonte Tiepolo conspiracy- tried to overthrow government • 1355- Marin Falier attempted coup de tat- decapitated for crimes • The Council of Ten: preserved the Republic. ‘Open comment box’ for public to write to the council about people commiting treason. Council of Ten would dispose of them overnight to preserve Venice. (Created as a reaction) Political Structure • Higher the office, less time to serve, except for the Doge. (serves for life) • Most successful political experiments in all time. • To elect a new Doge, it is the most chaotic and random process that takes 12 confusing steps. Scuoles • Scuole grandi: really confraternities that grow out of orders off flagellants th of mid-13 century. Develop into not so austere, even ostentatious groups. • Scuole piccolo: Religious groups of people or foreigners, trade guilds. 9/28/16 Video notes: Venice Backstage- How does it work? • 60 times a month- water flows in and out of lagoon • Venice grew from 124 separate settlements- each starting with a church, square, well, etc. • Overtime bricks would need to be restored, they would blouck out a canal section, clean and provide maintenance. • Saltwater eats away at the bricks so they would inject hydrolic bonding into bricks to help hold them. • Calle=city streets, Salizada= paved streets, Barbacane= balcony • Aqua alta-high tide, large problem • Venice-ancient and modern city: electrical wires run under the pavement and crosses over through bridges. • Sewage system: tunnels underground that release into the canals twice a day. • 438 bridges connecting all the islands. • Street ends don’t always match up, so most bridges are oblique. • Quick wooden bridges go up when a shortcut needs to be made. • Specific techniques went into their architecture for their unique environment. rd • Merchant House: groundfloor-warehouse 2ndfloor- living space 3 floor- servant space • Portego: highly decorated living room. Most important room. • Unique double staircase, one for servants to use, other for family/residents. • Structure: walls leaned in slightly; roof and floor were wooden to be flexible, external anchors and internal anchors. • Humidity caused another construction problem in combination with the saltwater. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Piazza San Marco/Piazzetta • Main area in Venice • Only Piazza in Venice Saint Mark’s Basilica • Cathedral of Venice, connected to the Palace • The center of the Piazza, built c. 1063-73 • Very unique design, greek cross floor plan • Venetians made many additions over the years • 3 domes, mosaics on the walls, covered in gold, light, glimmering color Doge’s Palace • Connected to the prison • Bridge of Sighs, one small window. Bell tower • Reconstructed perfectly after original destroyed in a earthquake (1800s) • Pala d’Oro artpiece: gold and precious stones, demonstrates power and wealth, belongs to Venice not private. • Uccello, marble pavement, San Marco, early 15 century • Castagno, Death of the Virgin, 1440s, San Marco • Fall of Constantinople, 1450, Venice loses wealth and privileges. • Venice moves more inward, new approach to architecture and art. Venetian Houses Venetian dwellings of all periods had special characteristics when compared to other Italian and European cities. 1. Buildings were taller 2. Venetian houses were narrow and long 3. Use of glass, very unique and important Island of Murano: glassmaker, glass industry. They moved there due to too many fires. Trademarked the techniques of glassmaking, perfected it with technology from the Middle East. Venetian glassblowers received special treatment, little more pay, and were sworn to secrecy. 4. Chimney spouts shaped like upside down cones. 5. Small courtyards 6. Terrances built on many rooftops (altane), balconies too. • Could hang art off it, showing wealth • Tapestry w/symbol • Drying your clothes • Space for women • Socialize/greenery • Open air Structure of Houses Usually 3 floors, perpendicular to the canal, no basements. Ground Floor • Used as a warehouse, storage and merchant space. • Large reception space • If they had wealth, there would be a courtyard with a well Piano nobile (2 Floor) • Most important floor • Protego, room to showcase art, wealth and status, light fills the room from windows on canal side • Polished floors: Pastellon- terra cotta colored floor tiles, Terrazzo- floor with chunks of stone/marble/goat milk • Camera d’Oro: where you receive people, do business Early Veneto -Byzantine Style Palaces Fondaco dei Turchi, Venice, late 12 century • Shop/storage/house/place for business • Ground floor was open for loading/unloading • Foreigner would stay here, Turks specifically in this one. Germans had one as well. Byzantine Casa Fondaco: Ca Loredan & Ca’Farsetti • Family owned • Hybrid style of houses from adding levels over time • Patere: circular décor attachments on the outside of house • Formelle: any other shape of décor attachments on outside of house • The more ornament the better. Very decorative. Ex: symbol of St. Mark or family crest Gothic Palaces Casa de Stazio- Palazza Pisani Moretta • Second piano nobile/sky lights • Quarter falls, more ornaments • Not as open on the ground floor, doors were added, less for merchants Ca’d’Oro- super ornamental and decorative. Marble façade. Open ground floor as well as doors. Doge’s Palace (1341-1424)- decoration is not unified. The building symbolizes the new state after the Serrata. Renaissance Palaces San Micheli, Palazzo Grimani, Venice c 1532-69 • Classical greek/roman style • Repetition of windows/unity façade • Heavy looking/strong, marble façade • No idea what the interior looks like Urban Expansion • Buildings of different styles right next to each other • Stacking styles up, multiple layers • Duplicity, repeat for the next building: Palazzi Giustiniani • Apartments were duplicated as well • Inserted mezzanines, between ground floor and piano nobile, square windows. (1400)