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PSYC-307 Notes

by: nrnova29

PSYC-307 Notes PSYC-307

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About this Document

Notes from Jex, S. M., & Britt, T. W. (2008). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach (2nd edition). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
Organizational Psychology
Dr. Dan Simonet
Class Notes




Popular in Organizational Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by nrnova29 on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-307 at Montclair State University taught by Dr. Dan Simonet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Organizational Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Montclair State University.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
9/12/16 - Emotional intelligence bridges the divide between intelligence and emotions - I/O is distinguished from other field by the use of science to answer practical questions - I/O psychologists are both generators and consumers of knowledge. We emphasize-based decisions in solving problems and gather evidence to support or refuse our hunches - Training must be focused on both theory and application. This includes using a decision -Doctors v. Managers: Are they evidence based? - Organizations need willingness to put aside beliefs and conventional wisdom dangerous half-truths many embrace and replace with unrelenting commitment to gather facts and make more informed and intelligence decisions - Decision Making- Better to present more or less information? - Motivation- better to set specific or broad goals? - Interviews- better to be casual or structured with job candidates? - Negotiation- better - Scientific study of human behavior within formal work organizations - Versus Organizational Behavior and HRM - Breadth vs. Organization - Theory vs. Experience **** “I” vs “O” “I” Industrial: traditional personnel functions - job performance= KSAO’s Organizations: social systems in which employees operate - motivate + - business is more experience based History: 1900s- early beginning - “I” mainly industrial - WWI - Less organization - Little to no feelings - Fredrick Taylor wanted to make people more efficient - He was an mechanical engineer - Taylorism st - 1 one to break down jobs and make them more efficient *** Hawthorene Effect: - leads to positive change in the work environment - work groups - 1930s - Great Depression - Unionize Unions: - organizations need to consider worker welfare Kert Lewin: - father of social psychology - action research - researching in an environment with a group bringing them in Statistics: ***** Methods Group Quiz: - What method establishes causation? - experimental (manipulate, randomly) - What is a correlation coefficient? - positive or negative, strength between 2 variables - What is meant by Moderation? Provide an example? Ones behavior - What is the difference a quasi- and a true experiment ? There is no random assignment - Explain a meta-analysis and how it differs from a regular analysis? Thinking about your thinking, analysis of an analysis Methods: Observational Methods: - tally data - watching what goes on - Nice cars and driving behaviors - Nice cars are more likely to cut off people Advantages: - natural behavior - avoid reactivity - rich insights - easy to understand Disadvantages: - labor intensive - observer Archival: - old data - sports data - advantages: - easy to obtain - non-reactive - different angles - sometimes LOTS Disadvantages: - indirect measures - inaccurate - invalid - redundant Surveys: Advantages: - lots of data - cheap - statistical analyses Disadvantages: - lack of cause - low response - design is difficult - Identify Variable - Literature Search - Questionnaire - Sampling - Collect and Analysis Experiments: True Experiment: 1. IV Manipulation 2. Random Assignment 3. Maximal Control Quasi-Experiment 1. IV Manipulation (usually) 2. No RA 3. Some control (statistical, intervention, sample selection) Easy vs Difficult goals: Difficult goals make you work harder*** ***Correlation Coincident: - is an index of the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two continuous variables. It ranges from +1 and -1, with 0 indicating no association. - Height and weight correlate - .70. The taller you are the more you tend Medical Magic: **** Moderation: A third variable alters the size of the relationship between two other variables Mediation: A intermediate variable explains or “carries” the effect of one variable to another (explains ) shotgun Heart Pumping ^ - Bear vs. No Bear-----------------------------------------Afraid Meta-Analysis: - Meta-Analysis Quantitative synthesis of finding for a topic by combining study data across several studies to develop a single conclusion. - The conclusions of a meta-analysis are statistically stronger than the analysis of any single study, due to increased numbers of subjects, greater diversity among subjects, or accumulated effects and results. Recruiting Finding and Attracting Talent: Finding Fit: Politics Sports Religion - All start with recruitment - Recruitment Aim: Generate a large pool of highly qualified applicants so the organization can select those who will be happy and successful Planning: - Strategy: future - Succession Planning: replacement - Skill Inventory: external vs. Internal Hires - ***Labor Supply: scarce or rare labor Recruitment Metrics: - Yield Ration: The number of candidates generated by a given recruiting source - Time Lapse Data: time it takes to go from one step to the next in the recruiting and hiring process (companies suck at this) - most organizations fail here 9/21/16 - Organization Image: reflect company’s products ** Signal Theory: how two parties reduce information asymmetries - warranties signal a product is high quality - job candidates attain costly education to signal their quality to employers - College football coach riding a limo signals a rich team to prospective players Attract applicants: 1. recruitment process 2. symbolic attributes quality of recruiter (image) 3. quality of work Applicant: Identifying a Good Fit Fit: Employees seek jobs compatible with their skills and organization that match their values and personality Person-Job Fit: Do my skills, abilities, and interests meet the demands of the job? Person-Organization Fit: Are my values and personality compatible with the culture of the organization Socialization: Becoming an Insider: How an Organization Creates Fit Socialization, or onboarding, is a process through which new employees move from being outsiders to becoming insiders. Effective socializations aids in adjustment by clarifying the employee’s role, raising their confidence Learning the Ropes: What do we learn during socialization: - history - politics - values - language - ** are you good at your job - ** people, do you have friends, understand the area, what do they stand for Proactive Socialization: Organizational Attitudes: - what is an “attitude” - components - Job Satisfaction : - Measurement - Determinants - Consequences - Theory of Planned Behavior - Organizational Commitment a. tripartite model b. embeddedness - Organizational justice Describe the three major theories of job satisfaction: what makes someone happy Attitude the theory: - attitudes towards anything: - sleeping on the job - the boss - new person - large office - work itself - office parties Attitude: all attitudes take a stance of something whether you like or dislike it - feels toward anything - ** General opinion about, or evaluation of, some target - vary in favorability and intensity/ accessibility ** ABC of Attitudes: Job Satisfaction: Affect--------------- I like and enjoy my job Cognition--------- My work is demanding (my pay is fair, the people I work with are good) Behavior ----------- I reliably show up to work (I show up to work on time) Favorability Not Enough….. Attitudes need Strength - More strongly held attitudes are better predictors of behavior. Why Job Attitudes: - most people expect job attitudes to influence some type of work behavior - performance - turnover Leading vs. lagged Indicator : stop problems before they start Making employees more satisfied can be an end itself Job Satisfaction: ** Job satisfaction- employees’ overall evolution of his or her job as well as specific aspects of the job as being favorable or unfavorable want-have x give (importance) Wants: - people who have worked there longer might want more money Have: - Importance: - money is everything, people could have low pay, but still love their job. ex. I have a best friend at work ex. I know what’s expected of me at work - Source Gallup Q12 - Measure are you getting feedback at work ** Global vs. facet Satisfaction - Global: Overall judgment - Facets correlate Single –item can be reliable (~.67) Faces scale = right to the core Facets: Specific aspects of work - diagnostic and different predictions - More reliable - 5 facets – work, pay, supervisor - Co-worker, promotion - Pros: construct validity and norms - Cons: work general, length Primary Determinants of Job Satisfaction: 4 ways: the people around you and how they shape you 1. Organizational Procedures and Characteristics 2. Job Characteristics 3. Social Information Processing 4. Disposition/ Affect Job and Org. Characteristics: Job Satisfaction is the discrepancy between valued outcomes (what we want) and supplies (what our organization gives). Magnified for important needs. Focused at facet-level Job Characteristic Model – Work itself Social Information Processing Dispositional Basis Stability: - Job satisfaction in adolescence predictive of job satisfaction in adulthood Genetic: - twins studies up to 30% of job satisfaction due to heritability (arvey, bouchard, segal and Abraham, 1886 Personality: - negative affectivity related to job dissatisfaction; Positive affectivity related to job satisfaction Putting it all Together: Strong: work satisfaction Weakest: pay satisfaction Theory of Planned Behavior: - Attitudes don’t always lead directly to behavior. Attitude- behavior link depends on correspondence between the specificity of attitude and behavior. - Theory of Planned Behavior: Intentions mediate the effects of attitudes on behavior. In other words, best way to predict whether someone will do something is to find out if they intend to do it. - Three Drivers of Intentions:  Attitude’s  norms  control Job Satisfaction and Withdrawal: Withdrawal Behaviors: disengaging from or failing to do one’s job. - Three main categories: Lateness Absenteeism Turnover Determinants of Turnover: Hom-Griffeth Model – Breaking Up - Desirability of movement Organizational Commitment: - Commitment - Organizational Commitment- relative strength of an individual’s identification with involvement in the organization. - Affective- emotional, want to stay - Continuance- invested, have to stay - Normative- loyalty, ought to stay Organizational vs. Occupational - can be committed to different targets Affective: Want To: Emotional Bond: to organization - have a sense of belonging, loyalty, and love. Willing to exert effort Normative: Ought to stay - Sense of moral obligation or ideological binding to organization - Have a sense of duty or debt to organization - Stay here because organizational investment or internalized norm Continuance- Have To - You need to stay - Have cost to leave, or already invested too much


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