History 109, Week 7 Wednesday Notes
History 109, Week 7 Wednesday Notes History 109
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenzie Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 109 at University of South Carolina taught by Neal David Polhemus in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Latin American Civilization in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Lecture 9/28/2016 The Crown & Cross in Latin America Latin America= LA Main Points 1. Multiple layers of a bureaucratic system were key in day-to-day political proceedings in Latin America. 2. The Catholic Church played a large role in the daily lives of Latin Americans. Challenges of Running the New World Empire • The New World was physically far from Spain, it could take two-four months to travel between New and Old worlds - This made the exchange of information difficult, took many months for decisions to be made and the carried out • The many levels of bureaucracy was difficult to navigate when appealing to higher powers • The Spanish crown could not be violent with its’ subjects in cases of uprising, relied on a docile population to maintain order • Other European powers were present, trying to settle, interfering with the control of Spain Preventing Powerful Rulers Separate from the Crown • After the civil war with Pizarro, conquistadors had a chaotic rule over subjects in LA • Charles I of Spain creates new set of laws, 1542, improve conditions of subjects, alters the encomienda system to not allow nobles to have a lot of power - This aimed to prevent the formation of feudal societies - Laws reverted encomiendas back to the crown when owner died, as opposed to being left to an heir, prevented central powers separate from the Crown • Enforcing these new laws was difficult, some were followed some were not • Some people believed that the indigenous people were capable of being converted to the Catholic religion and assimilated into Spanish society and this changed the way that the Crown enforced the laws (he said this was an important point) Council of the Indies (est 1532) • Appointed council, oversaw colonial government, legislation, commercial aspects, ecclesiastical aspects, religion. - Was a blended authority • Employed many counselors, in the beginning they were educated, experienced officials, this changed to being based on favoritism and thus became corrupt • The council was not strong, had slow communication, and was not effective in making decisions • The council was located in Madrid, away from the New world. Counselors were separate from the New World and couldn’t make appropriate decisions Viceroys • Viceroys: key official. the foremost executives, controlled general administration, collected taxes, sent surplus from colony to Spain, maintained order, defense of colony, protect people, religion • Ecclesiastical groups/lower level officials prevented the control of the viceroy, lower level bureaucrats create slow movement of law changes - Rivals of the viceroys could give a poor review of the viceroy to the Crown • Viceroys had control of their areas and could choose which laws to follow but if they didn’t follow most of the laws from the Crown it reflected badly upon them • Viceroys were subject to a residencia: review of service • Their service lasted 6-7 years, there were extremes though • Viceroys used their position for the improvement of themselves/friends/family, were not concerned with the improvement of the area because they moved back to Spain after service • Viceroys were separated into audiencias, with viceroys being like the President and audencias being governors - Audencias were elected positions, the officers lived in the colonies and truly wanted to improve the situations of their areas. - Had long-term service - Not appointed by Council of the Indies • The LA government was not pyramid style (top-down power), more like spokes and wheels with viceroys in the middle and audencias supporting/checking them, not centralized Political Weakness of Viceroys • Could use a formula, “I obey, but do not comply”. This way they could avoid enforcing laws that they didn’t want to • The Crown didn’t want confrontation so they didn’t care much when viceroys didn’t comply, plus, some laws hindered the Crown’s revenue so by ignoring them, the viceroys made the Crown money • Measures to protect indigenous people/subjects were rarely enforced • Authority is automatically flawed because of this selective enforcement but the council allowed for flexibility • This flexibility made the viceroys power weak Checks & Balances • Council arranged for residencias and reviews after the term of a viceroy - Visitas: general inspection of viceroy, done without warning the viceroy • Lower ranked officials could submit reports Who filled these positions? • Some native sons (Hijos Natural) or men born elsewhere (Radicados) held positions and were fully integrated into the society of LA, included in social events • High-ranking positions were filled by outsiders - In the 1550s, 1570s, the Crown sold offices in an attempt to increase revenue - 1557, Spain declared bankruptcy, needed $ - people could purchase an office and carry that office to the Andes - The size of the bureaucracy increased - This decreased the power of Hijos Natural and Radicados, who were actually committed to their offices • Peninsulars were people who came from Iberia • Creoles were Spanish born in the Andes Brazilian Government • Did not have a council until 1600s • 1642, create overseas council, centralized government, composed of lawyers and bureaucrats • Relaçao: first court of appeals in Brazil -judges who worked in this court also had jobs outside of this, were not focused, resulted inndeak judicial system -2 court of appeals not created until 1751 Catholic Church in LA • The Catholic Church was a major power, served as cultural mediator, Crown gave a lot of money to church, had goal of converting indigenous people -imposed monogamy -missions were the main method of converting people on the outside regions of Brazil -prepared indigenous people for assimilation • Catholic Church was prominent in populous areas, Mexico Valley, Peru • Expand to Augustinians and Dominicans • The College of Santiago aimed to train and educate the sons of nobility -aimed to teach them to be able to translate for indigenous people and train native clergy -efforts were not successful because some people feared that natives wouldn’t understand the religion or understand it too much and see the corrupt nature of the church • Church was imposed forcefully, built a church on an Aztec shrine Indigenous Syncretism • Some indigenous religions had similar practices on the surface of their religions to Catholic • This presented a problem, Church couldn’t present their religion as new or unique -some people responded positively -they recognized some of the central features of Catholicism as familiar • The importance of their gods were diminished -ex: Built an altar to the Virgin of Guadalupe right near the god of fertility, Tonatzin -saw that the Catholic gods as more powerful than theirs • Syncretism: the fusion of Christian beliefs with indigenous or African religions Catholic Church in the Periphery • Missionaries were key in the outskirts of the country, could slowly push Catholic religion life into people Ecclesiastical Power • The church had economic power, began a financial ascent • Commercial growth came from tithe -Tithe: 10% of earnings that churchgoers pay -as churchgoers grow more wealthy, church also becomes more wealthy • The Church became successful landowners and people invested in them • In large cities (Mexico City, Lima), Church was the largest landlord -leased their land, got revenue from mortgages, rentals • As Church became more wealthy, they also became more powerful • Money left for memorial masses/dowries, used to show the wealth of wealthy people in the community, created a lot of revenue for the church -note: the role that memorial masses played in Chica da Silva’s life demonstrates the importance of this for all of the elites in LA Summary 1. Iberians maintained their power by establishing webs of political and legal bureaucracy in the New World. 2. The Catholic Church brought some beliefs that became infused with indigenous religions.
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