Quiz 1 and Quiz 2 Study Guides
Quiz 1 and Quiz 2 Study Guides ART 3683
Popular in History of 20th Century Art
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Dixon on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 3683 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Siddons in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see History of 20th Century Art in Art History at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
20 th Century Art History Study Guide Quiz 1 Matisse and the Fauves – see study guide German Expressionism A German art movement that believed art should be expressive instead of literal. These artists used color expressively, focused on flat areas of color. Related to the Fauves, and demonstrated the first example of primitism. Rise in nationalism and interest in folk culture. Group called “The Bridge” meets in studio to work together an to push these ideas. Wood becomes an important medium because it shows the marks made by the artist. German Expressionism was interested in craft and artistic process. Russian Constructivism Russian Constructivism was a movement that was active from 1913 to the 1940s. It was a movement created by the Russian avant-garde, but quickly spread to the rest of the continent. Constructivist art is committed to complete abstraction with a devotion to modernity, where themes are often geometric, experimental and rarely emotional. Objective forms carrying universal meaning were far more suitable to the movement than subjective or individualistic forms. Constructivist themes are also quite minimal, where the artwork is broken down to its most basic elements. New media was often used in the creation of works, which helped to create a style of art that was orderly. An art of order was desirable at the time because it was just after WWI that the movement arose, which suggested a need for understanding, unity and peace. Famous artists of the Constructivist movement include Vladimir Tatlin, Kasimir Malevich, Alexandra Exter, Robert Adams, and El Lissitzky. The Bauhaus Opened in 1918 in Weimar, Germany. It began as an art school and is ran by Walter Gropius. He is an architect who designed the Bauhaus among many other factories. He used large panes of glass to make sure these factories were transparent. Walter also inspired modern graphic design, saying that all design should be simplified as well as universal. The school and its students are interested in reconstruction and using art to better society. The Bauhaus combined industry and design. The emergence of abstraction Influenced by suprematism, or “freeing art from the burden of the object.” Paul Cezanne worked in still life. He thought that the process of painting was more important than the subject. He paid special attention to form and simplification – this is the beginning of abstraction. Non-objectivity – art that is not about objects and that has no relation to any recognizable objects, events, or people Cubism Emerges in Paris, beginning in 1907 and continuing into 1915. Artists are attempting to paint motion (“the fourth dimension”). Focus on the simplification of forms like other movements. Analytic cubism – break up surface of an object to create a progression in time. Synthetic cubism – incorporates new materials such as paper. The most famous cubist is Pablo Picasso. He is interested in expressionist color as well as abstraction and simplification. Goes through a “Blue Period” and a “Rose Period” during which he paints in specific tones only. First synthetic cubism painting is of a newspaper on a table. He uses a photograph and rope as a frame. The core values of modernism are purity, authenticity, and direct experience. These artists aimed to simplify form to the point of abstraction, so that it is, in a sense, “pure”. One such artist is Paul Cezanne, who said to “treat nature by means of the cylinder, sphere and the cone.” These are the purist of forms, meaning his artwork asks the viewer to take matter forms for what they really are – a combination of basic shapes. Emil Nolde was a German watercolor artist and wood carver who was very interested in authenticity. His painting, “The Last Supper,” shows his process. The brush marks are obvious to the viewer and the faces in the piece are based off of traditional German carnival masks. The brush work in the painting can be compared to carved marks visible in wood carving. This shows an interest in authentic folk art. The final value, direct experience, can be seen through the use of expressive color. Artist such as Pablo Picasso strived to make their audience feel emotions through the use of certain colors. “Woman with a Crow”, painted during Picasso’s “Rose Period,” has a reddish tint, signifying power, comfort, and warmth. He used expressive color during “The Blue Period” as well. These paintings make audiences feel sadness and doubt. The invention of paint tubes was revolutionary. This meant artists could now travel and paint outside. Before paint tubes, painting landscapes were nearly impossible. An artist would have a difficult time mixing their own paints outdoors, let alone carrying their equipment. A whole new genre of painting was created, known as impressionism. Artists such as Monet were attempting to capture, very quickly, the impression of a scene outside. They had to pay special attention to the sunlight because it is constantly changing, unlike lighting indoors. These artists learned to paint quickly and used color in a specific way to capture the way natural light bounces of objects. ART 3683: History of Twentieth Century Art Professor Siddons Second Quiz Study Guide Our second quiz will be available online from 5pm on Thursday, September 29 through 5pm on Tuesday, October 4. In order to be prepared for the second quiz, you should be able to: • Describe each of the major movements we’ve discussed in class since the first quiz in terms of its primary national affiliation, two or three key concepts, one or two artists, and one or two key artworks associated with them. Relevant movements are: De Stijl Futurism Vorticism Experimental film Dada Surrealism The Ashcan School Precisionism • Identify and discuss some of the major themes of early 20 -century modernism (urbanization, mechanization, violence, universalism, etc.). th • Identify and discuss some of the major philosophical and scientific ideas of early 20 - century modernism (Marxist communism, psychoanalysis, photography, etc.) th • Identify and discuss some of the major visual and aesthetic strategies of early 20 - century modernism (minimalism, geometric abstraction, biomorphic abstraction, chance, repetition, etc.) • Define and discuss key terms from lectures and assigned readings.
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