Chapter 7 Notes - Learning
Chapter 7 Notes - Learning Psyc 1101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by D'Angel Brooks on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Graham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Intro to General Pyschology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Learning - Chapter 7 Learning- the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors One way we learn is by association Associative learning : learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences A stimulus is an event or situation that evokes a response. The process of learning associations is conditioning, which takes two main forms: o In classical conditioning, we associate stimuli that we do not control, and we automatically respond (exhibiting respondent behaviors). o In operant conditioning, we associate a response (our behavior) and its consequence (producing operant behaviors). Conditioning, this process of learning associations, is not the only form of learning: cognitive learning is another. Cognitive learning: The acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language. o Observational learning is one form of cognitive learning. It lets us learn from others’ experiences. The BEHAVIORISM’S VIEW OF LEARNING Ivan Pavlov’s early twentieth-century experiments are psychology’s most famous research. Classical conditioning: Type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. Behaviorism o Psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. o Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2). Pavlov studied the digestive system; recipient of Russia’s first Nobel Prize (1904). An incidental observation triggered his new direction. Neutral stimulus (NS): In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned response (UR): In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth) Unconditioned stimulus (US): In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally— naturally and automatically—triggers an unconditioned response (UR) Conditioned response (CR): In classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) Conditioned stimulus (CS): In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus, that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR) Classical Conditioning Acquisition – the initial stage when one links neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response Extinction- the diminishing of a conditioned response that occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus. Spontaneous recovery – reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response Generalization - The tendency when a response has been conditioned, the stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses Discrimination - A learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli Pavlov's principles are used to influence human health and well-being. Pavlov's work also provided a basis for Watson's ideas that human emotions and behaviors are mainly bundle of conditioned responses even though they are biologically influenced. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. Actions followed by reinforcers increase; those followed by punishment decrease. Operant behavior is behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli. B. F. Skinner was modern behaviorism’s most influential and controversial figure. He expanded on Edward L. Thorndike’s law of effect, which states that rewarded behavior tends to recur. He developed behavioral technology that revealed principles of behavior control. He also designed and used an operant chamber (Skinner box) for experiments that included a bar (a lever) that an animal presses (or a key or disc the animal pecks) to release a reward of food or water, and also a device that records these responses Shaping Shaping: Gradually guiding behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. Everyday behaviors are continually reinforced and shaped. With this method of successive approximations, responses that are ever-closer to the final desired behavior are rewarded, and all other responses are ignored. Reinforcers Positive reinforcement Increases behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response. Negative reinforcement Increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforce is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: Negative reinforcement is not punishment.) Primary reinforcer: Is unlearned; innately reinforcing stimuli, such as those that satisfy biological needs Conditioned (secondary): A stimulus that gains power through association with primary reinforcer Immediate and Delayed Reinforcers Immediate: Occurs immediately after a behavior Delayed: Involves time delay between desired response of and delivery of reward Reinforcement Schedule Reinforcementschedule o A pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced Continuous reinforcement schedule o Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs Partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedule o Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement Fixed-ratio schedule o Reinforcing a response only after a specified number of responses Variable-ratio schedule o Reinforcing a response after an unpredictable number of responses Fixed-interval schedule o Reinforcing a response only after a specified time has elapsed Variable-interval schedule o Reinforcing a response at unpredictable time intervals Punishment Punishment - an undesirable consequence or withdraws something desirable in an attempt to decrease the frequency of a behavior o Ex: a child’s disobedience Positive punishment o Presenting a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior less likely to happen in the future Negative punishment o Removing a desired stimulus after particular undesired behavior is exhibited, resulting in reducing behavior in future *Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten* The Difference b/w Operant Conditioning and Classical Conditioning Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning. Both involve acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination. Classical conditional involves respondent behaviors and operant conditioning involves operant behaviors. Biological constraints: Evolved biological tendencies that predispose animals’ behavior and learning, making certain behaviors more easy to learn than others Garcia and Koelling’s taste-aversion research Animals including humans seem biologically prepared to learn some associations rather than others Conditioning is stronger when the CS is ecologically relevant Genetic predisposition to associate CS with a US that follows predictably and immediately is adaptive Instinctive drift occurs as animals revert to biologically predisposed patterns ————————————— Mental information that guides behavior is acquired through cognitive learning. Animals learn the predictability of event (Rescorla and Wagner, 1972). The more predictable the association between a neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus, the stronger the conditioned response. It’s as if the animal learns an expectancy, an awareness of how likely it is that the US will occur. Skinner acknowledged the biological underpinnings of behavior but has been criticized for discounting the importance of cognition. Evidence of cognitive processes o Animal response on fixed-interval reinforcement schedule. o Development of cognitive maps in rats (latent learning that only becomes evident when there is an incentive to demonstrate it). o Intrinsic motivation: A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. o Extrinsic motivation: A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment. The Difference b/w Observational Learning and Associative Learning Observational learning: Higher animals, especially humans, learn without direct experience by watching and imitating others Albert Bandura is the pioneering researcher of observational learning, famous for the Bobo doll experiment Modeling - the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior The Bobo doll experiment showed direct imitation by children of the adult behavior o Vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment experienced by watching models Mirror Neurons Mirrors and Imitation in the Brain Mirror neurons: Frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; provide a neural basis for everyday imitation and observational learning. o The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy. o In humans, imitation is pervasive; so strong is the human predisposition to learn from watching adults that children will overimitate, copying even irrelevant adult actions. o Brain response to observing others makes emotions contagious. Impact of Prosocial Modeling and Antisocial Modeling Prosocial Effects: Prosocial modeling of behavior can have prosocial effects Behavior modeling enhances learning of communication, sales, and customer service skills in new employees Modeling nonviolent, helpful behavior prompts similar behavior in others Research across seven countries showed that viewing prosocial media increased later helping behavior Socially responsive toddlers tend to have strong internalized conscience as preschoolers Models most effective with consistent actions and words Antisocial Effects: Abusive parents may have aggressive children Watching TV and videos may teach children o Bullying is effective tool for controlling others o Free and easy sex doesn’t have later consequences o Men should be tough; women should be gentle Violence-viewing effect demonstrated when viewing media violence triggers violent behavior Watching cruelty may foster indifference
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