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Psychology 100- Chapter 6-Learning

by: Obioma Azie

Psychology 100- Chapter 6-Learning Psychology 100

Obioma Azie

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(Source: Psychology: From Understanding to Inquiry (13th Edition)) Highlighting and Underlining Explained If a term is underlined and highlighted, it is a key term that you should know come exam ...
Psychology 100-Introduction to Psychology
Megan Davis
Class Notes
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Obioma Azie on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Megan Davis in Winter 2016 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Psychology 100-Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chapter 6­Learning (Source: Psychology: From Understanding to Inquiry (13th Edition)) Highlighting and Underlining Explained If a term is underlined and highlighted, it is a key term that you should know come exam day. If  a term is just underlined it is an important person or concept that would be good to remember.  Phrases in bold are key ideas. Classical Conditioning(CC)  A great deal of learning depends on the association of one thing with another.  What is classical conditioning? o A previously neutral stimulus gets paired with another stimulus, and elicits an  automatic response. th  19  century  o A school of thinkers called British Associationists believed that we acquire  virtually all of our knowledge through conditioning.  Pavlov o Dogs Metronome( CS)+Meat powder( UCS)+ Salivation(CR)  Factors of CC o Unconditioned Stimulus(UCS)  A stimulus that elicits an automatic response o Unconditioned Response(UCR)  Automatic response to a non­neutral stimulus that does not need to be  learned. o Conditioned Stimulus(CS)  An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to  association with a UCS o Conditioned Response(CR)  Response that previously associated with a non­neutral stimulus that is  elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning  Things that can happen in CC o  Habituation  can occur in CC.  Habituation  Process of responding less strongly to over time to repeated stimuli o Spontaneous Recovery  The sudden reemergence of an extinct CR after there has been a delay of  one’s exposure to the CS o Renewal Effect  The sudden reemergence of the CR of an organism to the CS, after  returning to the environment the CR was acquired in  Is often adaptive  May explain why people reacquire their phobias, after being put in the  environment where they first acquired them. o Stimulus Generalization  The process in which conditioned stimuli similar to the original CS trigger the same CR  This occurs over a generalization gradient.  What does this mean?  It means that the more similar various stimuli are to the original CS of a CR, the stronger the CR will be to them: the stimuli that are  very similar to the CS. o Stimulus Discrimination(SD)  The process by which organisms display a less pronounced CR to  conditioned stimuli that differ from the original CS  This helps to explain why we can enjoy scary movies.  SD is adaptive. o How so?  It allows us to distinguish between stimuli that share some similarities, but differ in important ways. Higher­Order Conditioning  What is Higher­Order Conditioning? o The development of a CR to a CS because of its association with another CS  Example o Second­Order Conditioning  A new CS is paired with the original CS.  Each progressive level results in weaker conditioning. Application of CC to Everyday Life  Many of our physiological responses that we display in CC contribute to our survival. Latent Inhibition     Latent Inhibition o Difficulty establishing CC to a CS we have repeatedly been exposed to alone,  without the UCS. Fetishes     Fetishes o Sexual attraction to nonliving things Disgust Reactions     CC helps to keep us safe from things that would harm us. Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Conditioning) (OC)     Operant Conditioning o Learning controlled by the consequences of to certain behaviors Terminology of OC      Reinforcement  The outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the chances  that a target behavior will occur      Punishment  The action of doing something to decrease a target behavior      Positive Punishment  Procedure Presents a stimulus  Effect on Behavior Decreases the target behavior      Positive Reinforcement  Procedure Presenting a stimulus  Effect on Behavior Increases target behavior       Negative Punishment    Procedure Removing a stimulus  Effect on Behavior Decreases target behavior      Negative Reinforcement  Procedure Removing a stimulus  Effect on Behavior Increases target behavior Applications of OC Animal training       Shapin     The conditioning of a target behavior by progressively reinforcing  behaviors that are close to the target behavior Overcoming procrastination      Premark (1965)  Found that we can positively reinforce a less frequent behavior with a  more frequent behavior. This has worked very well for many people. Therapeutic applications of operant conditioning      Secondary Reinforcement  A neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinforcement      Primary Reinforcement  Item or outcome that naturally increases the target behavior Schedules of Reinforcement     Schedule of Reinforcement o Pattern of reinforcing behavior     Continuous Reinforcement o Reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs. This results in faster learning, but  faster extinction.     Partial Reinforcement o Only reinforcing a behavior occasionally; this results in slower extinction, than if  the behavior was continually reinforced.     Fixed Ratio Schedule o Pattern in which reinforcement is provided after a regular number of responses     Variable Ratio Schedule o Pattern in which we provide reinforcement after a specific number of responses  on average, with the numbers varying randomly     Fixed Interval Schedule o Pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least one time, following a specific time interval     Variable Interval Schedule o Pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least  once during an average time interval, with the interval varying randomly OC vs CC  OC o The targeted behavior is emitted voluntarily. o The reward is dependent upon the behavior. o Behavior depends mostly on skeletal muscles.  CC o The targeted behavior is elicited automatically. o The reward is provided unconditionally. o Behavior depends mostly on the autonomic nervous system. The Law of Effect  Law of Effect (1898) o If a stimulus is followed by a behavior results in a reward, the more likely the  behavior is to occur in the future.  E.L. Thorndike o Puzzle box  A hungry cat was put into a box, with a tantalizing piece of fish put on the  outside of the box. The cat had the task of figuring out how to get out of  the box.  What was the take away from this? o All learning occurs through trial and error o Crushed the idea that cats learn by insight o Laid the groundwork for research in OC. o Discovered the Law of Effect B.F. Skinner A behaviorist who developed the theory of OC  Studied the operant behavior of rats, pigeons, and other animals o He mapped out their responses to rewards with a device  Skinner felt that the fact that Thorndike had to stick around to set the  hungry cat in the box, and attentively observe its behavior, following each  trial was a limitation.  He believed that this limitation made it difficult to study the  buildup of associations in the ongoing operant behavior over time. o By having a device monitor animal behavior, Skinner ran  the risk of missing some important behavior that the device  was not meant to record.  Skinner Box (Operant Chamber) o An enclosed space that contains a bar or key  that an animal can press or mess with to obtain  food or water. Cognitive Models of Learning     Cognitive Conditioning o Phenomenon in which conditioning is more than an automatic process. Early behaviorists did not believe that thought played more of a causal role in learning. o The big transition in psychology from behaviorism to cognition     Skinner (1953) was an advocate for radical behaviorism o He believed that:  Observable behavior, thinking, and emotion are all governed by the same  principles of learning as CC and OC      Cognitive psychology invokes unobservable and ultimately meaningless  concepts  Humans and other intelligent animals think, and that thinking is not any  different in principle from any other behavior. S­O­R Psychology  Psychologists have been moving away from S­R(Stimulus­Reaction) Psychology, and  closer to S­O­R(Stimulus­Organism­Reaction) Psychology.  In S­O­R Psychology, the organism interprets the stimulus before producing a response. o To S­O­R psychologists, the link between the stimulus and the response is  mindless/automatic  The response of the organism depends on what the stimulus means to it o S­O­R theorists do not deny that CC and OC occur.  What these theorists believes is that these forms of learning usually  depend on thinking. Latent Learning     Latent Learning o Learning that is not directly observable.  There is a difference between competence (what we know) and  performance (showing what we know) This discrimination is important because it implies that  reinforcement is not necessary for learning.      Tolman demonstrated this point systematically   Maze rats He found that the rats made  cognitive maps . Mental representation of how  physical space is organized.  “Internal spatial blueprint” Observational Learning(OL) Many psychologists view OL as an important variant of latent learning, because it allows  us to learn without reinforcement.      Ba  ra o Bobo doll  Aggression through observation can be a learned behavior. Can contribute to the acquisition of maladaptive habits Media Violence and Real­World Aggression Hundreds of investigators using correlational designs, longitudinal studies, and field  studies have reported that children who watch many violent TV programs tend to be more aggressive than children who don’t. o Correlational studies, longitudinal studies, and field studies tend to be high in  external validity, but low in internal validity.  However, scientific conclusions are usually the most convincing when we  base them off of findings from different research designs. o In turn, most psychological scientists today agree that  media violence does indeed contribute to aggression in  some circumstances, while also recognizing that aggressive behavior is multi­faceted, in regards to what initiates it. Mirror Neurons and Observational Learning     Mirror Neurons  o Cells in the prefrontal cortex that becomes activated when an animal performs an  action or observes it being performed. It is possible that lower activity of the mirror neuron system in autism is a consequence,  rather than a cause of the empathy deficit, that is associated with autism. The discovery of mirror neurons may ultimately provide valuable insight information on  how we learn from others. Insight Learning  Wolfgang Koëhler o Founder of Gestalt Psychology o Chimps  He had a chimp who reached for a bunch of bananas by combining two  small sticks after failing to do so, while only using one stick. The chimp  then combined the sticks every time he reached for the bananas, after that  first successful attempt.  This reflected insight, instead of trial and error  Latent Learning and Observational Learning were not the only holes that were punched  in behaviorist theory. Biological Influences on Learning  Our biology influences the speed and nature of our learning in fascinating ways  Preparedness o Evolutionary predisposition to learn some pairings of feared stimuli because of  their survival value.  Instinctive Drift o Tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors, following repeated  reinforcement  This suggests that we cannot fully understand learning without taking  innate biological influences into account.  Why? o Biological influences set limits on what kinds of behaviors  we can train through reinforcement Conditioned Taste Aversions  Sauce béarnaise o Martin Seligman (1970)  Conditioned taste aversion  His work contradicts the work of Pavlov  How? o Conditioned taste aversions only take one trial to develop. o The delay between CS and UCS in conditioned taste  aversions can be as long as 6 hours, even 8 hours o Conditioned taste aversions display little evidence of  stimulus generalization, because they tend to be very  specific  Equipotentialiality o The claim that we classically condition all CSs equally well to all UCSs  This is a belief that is held by many behaviorists  CC can lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of food.  Conditioned taste aversion contradicts the assumption of equipotentiality. Learning Fads  Sleep Assisted Learning  Accelerated Learning  Discovery Learning Learning Style  An individual’s preferred method of taking in new information


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