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## EEOB 4550, Week 6 notes

by: Caitlin Fillm

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# EEOB 4550, Week 6 notes EEOB 4550

Caitlin Fillm
OSU
GPA 2.6

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These notes cover the beginning material for Exam 2
COURSE
Neurobiology of Behavior
PROF.
Dr. Hoskins, Dr.Jackson
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
4
WORDS
CONCEPTS
behavior, Barn owl
KARMA
25 ?

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Fillm on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EEOB 4550 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Hoskins, Dr.Jackson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Neurobiology of Behavior in Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology at Ohio State University.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
Understanding Sound  Rarefaction -> compression -> rarefaction -> compression -> refraction  Pure tone sound can be described by its frequency (f), Φ amplitude (A), and phase ( ) as a sine wave o y = A sin(2π f t + Φ) o One single frequency - simplest sound o A period = T o Phase specifies a point in the cycle relative to where it starts (0)  λ = v/f o As frequency (f) goes up, period (T) goes down, and wavelength λ goes down o Speed of sound -> v= 340 m/s o Tone has a frequency = 1000 Hz (1 kHz) = 1000 cycle/sec o λ= 340/1000 = 0.34 m ~ 1ft o Any object that is less than 1/3 of the wavelength will not affect the sound Sound is Detected in the Cochlea  Different neurons are responding to different frequencies  Stapes vibrates against the oval window  Vibration sets up waves in the fluid  Running down the middle of fluid is the basilar membrane o Sitting on the basilar membrane are neurons called hair cells (mechanoreceptors)  Sitting on top of projections is another membrane  When there are soundwaves, the basilar membrane is pushed up and down  The membrane on the tips moves it bends the tips  Basilar membrane gets thinner the further you get along the coil o The thin end is being stimulated by low frequency sounds o The thick bottom are only being stimulated when you have high frequency sounds coming in and setting up waves  High frequency sounds carry more energy  Tonotopic map Barn Owls  Facial ruff - arrangement of feathers going out around the sides of the face o Acoustically transparent o Doesn't interfere with sound waves passing through it  Two grooves in the facial ruff that have stiff feathers in them that serve to guide sound into the outer ears  Asymmetrical ears o Left one is higher but opens downward o Right one is lower but opens upward  Ears have a preaural flap covering the opening o The flap on the left opens downward o The flap on the right opens upward  The grooves are guiding sound most effectively at 3 kHz  Barn owl eyes are fixed o Do not move in the sockets o Rotated forward o It must turn its head to see things to right or left Experimental Approach  See how much an owl moved its head depending on where the sound was coming from o Had an owl trained to sit on feeder o On top of owls head were copper coils perpendicular to ecach other o Surrounding the owl were induction coils o Creating electric field around the owl o When owl turns head the copper coils would change the electric field o Set up the field with a zeroing speaker  Straight ahead, perfectly horizontal with owl's head o Target speaker  Moved and produced mouse sounds  See if the owl moved its head in response to sound o Created a map o Doing this in the dark using infrared lamps Ear Plugging Experiments  How good is an owl at determining location of sound when you plug one of its ears? o Give owl a mix of frequencies from low to high o Most of the mistakes they made were up and down errors  Vertical direction o When left ear plugged they went higher than they should have o When the left ear had a loose plug they went closer to target o Similar results for right ear but they went too low o Minimal error right to left compared to vertical error o Shows owl is using info from both right and left ear Q1: what are two main cues used to determine sound direction?  Interaural time differences (ITD) o Horizontal direction (azimuth) o Different locations may have same ITD  Cone of confusion  Interaural intensity differences (IID) o Owl generally uses f > 3 kHz to determine the vertical direction o Take into account the difference in sensitivity of the right vs. left ear in terms of vertical direction o A sound that is below the ear is going to be louder in the left ear or above is going to be louder in the right ear o Compare intensity differences to determine vertical direction Q2: If a barn owl is able to resolve differences in sound location that are about 1.5 apart in both the horizontal and vertical directions, what would you expect its threshold for detecting time and intensity differences between the two ears to be?  Thresholds for time and intensity differences o For time (ITD):  42µs/20˚ = ~2µs/degree  So threshold is ~3µs = (2µs * 1.5˚) o For intensity (IID):  ~16 dB/50˚ = ~2/3 dB/degree  So threshold is ~1dB o Isoclines are orthogonal so ITD and IID are independent of each other  ITD and IID maps are basically perpendicular, but independent of each other  Detected separately -> processed separately  Using ITD and IID o If an owl has sound in his left ear come in 21 ms faster than it does in the right ear but intensity is the same in both ears  The mouse is on the left side  Intensity is the same so where is the mouse?  Dead ahead  Same horizontal plane as the ear  10˚

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