Industrial Revolution HST 198
Popular in World History since 1500
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by meghan Hamilton on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HST 198 at Miami University taught by Dr. Dewitt S. Chandler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see World History since 1500 in History at Miami University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Industrial Revolution cont… ● Natural Resources ○ Coal and iron ore ○ Water transport ■ Lots of canal building ● Technology Change ○ Narrow Front ■ Only one industry was affected by the Industrial Revolution ■ Cotton Textiles Industry: “Takeoff” industry of the industrial ■ revolution. Growth of Potential ● Cotton was easier to work with, had a natural elasticity ■ Steam (engine): was very primitive at first. It was very dependent on large supplies of coal, so at that time it could really only be used at the coal mines. First use, was to pump water out of coal mines ● Concentrated power ● This allowed the British to move their textile industries to the city, where the workers were ● War and cargo ships could also be powered by the steam engine ○ This made them very effective in the first opium war against the Chinese ○ It could operate on rivers and canals because it is not dependent of winds, it can control its direction ■ Railroads ● Canals come to an end because the railroads were much more efficient ● One of the main functions of the development of the steam engine was to power railroads ● By the 1900’s railroads were all over the world ● Long distance railroads became huge ● In Europe railroads were so close together ● Railroads in Africa and South America: the railroads were short and right along the coast ○ These railroads weren’t built to serve the African people ○ They were built to get industrial raw materials to the coast, to be taken to be processed and then resold to the African people at a very high price The Industrial Revolution spreads ● First spreads to the northeastern areas of the United States, parts of Belgium and Germany ● Tidal wave of change ○ Happened very quickly(In Britain it took several generations, took these people one generation) ○ Had the British example, saw how it generated wealth for them ● Variations ○ Each area followed a slightly different path to industrialization ○ Depended on what role the governments played in the economy of the areas ○ In Russia and Germany, government was used to playing an active role in the country's’ economic development. This helped fuel the rapid changes ○ In the United States, the early industrial revolution is mostly carried out by private enterprise, but in some aspects the government did play a crucial role, such as the railroads spreading across the country and into Canada ■ Government paid railroad companies with public land, in return for building the long distance east to west railroads ■ Railroad company would in turn sell the land back to individuals to recoup their investment ● Social Impact of rapid urban growth ○ Living and working conditions ■ Pollution, way more than ever before ■ Overcrowding ● People were crammed into slums ● Very small living quarters ● practically, no sunshine in the windows ● Dumped waste water in the narrow alley way separating the buildings REVOLUTION OF MODERNITY ● The revolution in science ○ Intellectual revolution ○ The west’s unique contribution ● The American and French Revolutions ○ Social and political earthquakes ● The Industrial Revolution ○ A world created, a world destroyed ■ The foundations laid: ● Nonwestern jumpstart ● Native Americans and Africans ○ Forced labor source ■ Origins in England ● The rate of literacy was high during the 18th century compared to other areas of Europe ● Social and economic changes ○ Rapid population growth(urban) ■ Increa sed food supply has caused growth in the population ○ “Enclosure” ○ Credit, insurance ■ Beco mes more available and a more sophisticated process ○ Markets: colonial and internal ■ No reason to produce goods if you aren’t going to sell the goods ■ The 2nd Agricultural Revolution ● More efficient agriculture, that lead to more food being produced, that lead to a growth in population ● Fewer people have to produce more food, so their agricultural technology must be improved ● Preagricultural revolution: cut wheat by using a sickle ● Postagricultural revolution: use of horses and new machine, increased productivity by ⅔ ● Nearly all the agricultural improvements during the 19th century, came out of the United States because we always were having a labor shortage ● From subsistence agriculture to market agriculture ○ Subsistence: producing enough food to meet their own needs ○ Market: producing more to sell in an urban market ● Change in crops, livestock and methods ○ Root crops were less likely to be damaged by frost ○ More use of fertilizers ○ Slaughterhouse records showed the weight of animals brought to market increased steadily over time
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