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Industrial Revolution

by: meghan Hamilton

Industrial Revolution HST 198

Marketplace > Miami University > History > HST 198 > Industrial Revolution
meghan Hamilton
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Covers the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain and its' spread to the U.S.
World History since 1500
Dr. Dewitt S. Chandler
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by meghan Hamilton on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HST 198 at Miami University taught by Dr. Dewitt S. Chandler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see World History since 1500 in History at Miami University.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Industrial Revolution cont… ● Natural Resources ○ Coal and iron ore ○ Water transport ■ Lots of canal building ● Technology Change ○ Narrow Front ■ Only one industry was affected by the  Industrial Revolution ■ Cotton Textiles Industry: “Take­off” industry of  the industrial  ■ revolution. Growth of Potential ● Cotton was easier to work with,  had a natural elasticity ■ Steam (engine): was very primitive at first. It  was very dependent on large supplies of coal, so at that time it  could really only be used at the coal mines. First use, was to pump  water out of coal mines ● Concentrated power ● This allowed the British to move  their textile industries to the city, where the workers were ● War and cargo ships could also  be powered by the steam engine ○ This made them  very effective in the first opium war against the  Chinese ○ It could operate on  rivers and canals because it is not dependent of  winds, it can control its direction ■ Railroads ● Canals come to an end because  the railroads were much more efficient ● One of the main functions of the  development of the steam engine was to power railroads ● By the 1900’s railroads were all  over the world ● Long distance railroads became  huge ● In Europe railroads were so close together ● Railroads in Africa and South  America: the railroads were short and right along the coast ○ These railroads  weren’t built to serve the African people ○ They were built to  get industrial raw materials to the coast, to be taken to be processed and then resold to the African people at a very high price The Industrial Revolution spreads ● First spreads to the northeastern areas of the United States, parts of  Belgium and Germany ● Tidal wave of change ○ Happened very quickly(In Britain it took several generations,  took these people one generation) ○ Had the British example, saw how it generated wealth for  them ● Variations ○ Each area followed a slightly different path to  industrialization ○ Depended on what role the governments played in the  economy of the areas ○ In Russia and Germany, government was used to playing an active role in the country's’ economic development. This helped fuel the  rapid changes ○ In the United States, the early industrial revolution is mostly  carried out by private enterprise, but in some aspects the government did  play a crucial role, such as the railroads spreading across the country and  into Canada ■ Government paid railroad companies with  public land, in return for building the long distance east to west  railroads ■ Railroad company would in turn sell the land  back to individuals to recoup their investment  ● Social Impact of rapid urban growth ○ Living and working conditions ■ Pollution, way more than ever before ■ Overcrowding ● People were crammed into slums ● Very small living quarters ● practically, no sunshine in the  windows ● Dumped waste water in the  narrow alley way separating the buildings REVOLUTION OF MODERNITY ● The revolution in science ○ Intellectual revolution ○ The west’s unique contribution ● The American and French Revolutions ○ Social and political earthquakes ● The Industrial Revolution ○ A world created, a world destroyed ■ The foundations laid: ● Non­western jump­start ● Native Americans and Africans ○ Forced labor source ■ Origins in England ● The rate of literacy was high  during the 18th century compared to other areas of Europe ● Social and economic changes ○ Rapid population  growth(urban) ■ Increa sed food supply has caused growth in the  population ○ “Enclosure” ○ Credit, insurance ■ Beco mes more available and a more sophisticated  process ○ Markets: colonial  and internal ■ No  reason to produce goods if you aren’t going to  sell the goods ■ The 2nd Agricultural Revolution ● More efficient agriculture, that  lead to more food being produced, that lead to a growth in  population ● Fewer people have to produce  more food, so their agricultural technology must be improved ● Pre­agricultural revolution: cut  wheat by using a sickle ● Post­agricultural revolution: use  of horses and new machine, increased productivity by ⅔   ● Nearly all the agricultural  improvements during the 19th century, came out of the  United States because we always were having a labor  shortage ● From subsistence agriculture to  market agriculture ○ Subsistence:  producing enough food to meet their own needs ○ Market: producing  more to sell in an urban market ● Change in crops, livestock and  methods ○ Root crops were  less likely to be damaged by frost ○ More use of  fertilizers ○ Slaughterhouse  records showed the weight of animals brought to  market increased steadily over time


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