HIST 1103 WEEK 7 NOTES
HIST 1103 WEEK 7 NOTES HIST 1103
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nichole Pike on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1103 at Oklahoma State University taught by Professor Prince in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
HIST 1103 WEEK 7 NOTES ORIGINS OF CIVIL WAR CONTINUED can’t have any sort of trial the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional HARPERS FERRY RAID John Brown comes back because he was never convicted for Bleeding Kansas seizes control of Harpers Ferry, Virginia; one of the main arsenals and could equip slaves with weapons fails to actively free slaves Lee attacks the arsenal and captures John Brown Brown was hanged as he goes to the gallows; he says that the end of slavery can only be done by the purge blood people in the north are mourning Brown and in the South he is seen as a traitor sides are set again each other this comes at a bad time because the next year is election year THE ELECTION OF 1860 union dissolves during this election main topic was the issue of slavery and slavery with the fate of the union talks of secession are already happening republicans have widespread support DIVIDED PARTIES, DIVIDED NATION said to move on because it wasn’t worth destroying the union if you did not like slavery, then your vote went to Lincoln the north is populous (3x more people than in the south) majority of north is against slavery and Lincoln is elected President took office in March James Buchanan lets the civil war happen while waiting for Lincoln to take care of it SOUTH CAROLINA SECEDES Lincoln says that he won’t ban slavery, but just wants to stop it from expanding S.C. can’t wait and they vote to secede; overwhelmingly for secession these southern states secede together but not until the war breaks out no realistic way that the south will win the war FORMING A CONFEDERACY the capital is moved after Virginia secedes but is originally Montgomery, AL these were not viable nations because they were all agricultural and needed industry that was in the upper south in order to survive Lincoln says they will not supply the south because if they wanted their own nation then they had to do it on their own and we would not help them ABRAHAM LINCOLN BECOMES PRESIDENT Fort Sumter is where Lincoln says it will take place they will only send food as long as they had slavery, they would not get foreign recognition April 1861, they open fire on Fort Sumter FORT SUMTER, SECESSION AND WAR Lincoln says it is an unprovoked attack people thought war was quick and the call said 90 days or however long the war last; whichever was first in response to Lincoln rising a war other states seceded April 15, 1861 Lincoln sent people to Lee and wanted to give him full control of army and when Lee refuses he lets him go war drags on for so long because people don’t fully understand exactly what the war will be north has all of the advantages but the south has better military commanders THE AMERICAN CIVIL WARPRESERVING THE UNION, 18611862 THE WAR BEGINS when the worth goes to war, it is not to end slavery or more people will flock to the south they were instead trying to protect the union this is the first modern war modern weapons with old statistics this is a bloody war when Virginia secedes, people secede from Virginia to create W.V. this war is brother vs brother; tearing families apart ensuring the viability of the two sides Maryland stays in the war in order to protect the capital this war is not cut and dry it is competing sides the confederacy doesn’t have a chance at winning the war because of the way their government was structured THE FAILURE OF LIMITED GOVERNMENT IN THE CONFEDERACY they go back to a states right central government (go back to Articles of Confederation which didn’t work before) states could say no because they had the power this type of government cannot effectively fight a war the people generally fighting this war are lower classes, those who didn’t own slaves if the war starts losing, the people fighting it don’t have anything to lose (not invested without slaves or large land) a portion of the military had to stay in the south to keep slavery intact the north can out mobilize because of this and could out produce CHANGING WARFARE AND TECHNOLOGY the civil war is more deadly because of mini balls the north can manufacture mini balls much more faster everyone had a rifled weapon, more effective tactics don’t advance at all even with more effective weapons were fighting as they were during the American Revolution northern cavalry had more effective weapons that could fire much faster and more shots per minute cannons get longer range and have better exploding shelves artillery becomes very important in the field of battle moving from land stuff to ironclad war ships (the union buys on into these fullon) USS Monitor vs CSS Virginia, 1862 the issue is the north can build a lot of these ships THE FIRST “MODERN WAR” use aerial balloons for artillery spottingthe north can, the south cannot modern usage of some medieval weapons battles are deadlier Battle of Waterloopeople said it was a one time abomination but it continues over and over during the civil war experimenting with the first type of machine guns some people are still dying from disease, but a lot people are being killed by the end of the war, “Total War”people attacking civilians in the hope they would influence the national government people don’t understand this yet, still think it is 90 days the south is run down 97% of firearm production is in the Union FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN people think the war will start as it used to armies meet at Battle of Bull Run (Manassas Junction) Union army attacks and the Confederates are outnumbered but because of the nearest town, troops were there in a short amount of time because of the war Jackson successfully rallies the Confederate troops the new Confederates stun the Union this whole time, the Union thinks it is ‘fun’ or ‘entertainment’ Confederates were in a position where they could march and take the capital but they are tired and have causalities whoever has the better technology and uses it the most effectively is probably going to win neither side can have an advantage in the east but the war stalemates THE “ANACONDA PLAN” Winfield Scott, 1861 comes up with the Anaconda Plan plan was to blockade the south since they can’t make their own stuff the north isn’t really good enough to make the blockade South brought in stuff to make money FOREIGN INVOLVEMENT biggest challenges of the north is preventing foreign recognition Europeans will only sell old weapons in the North, the Europeans had all banned slavery EMERGENCE OF ULYSSES S. GRANT most union commanders are useless Ulysses S. Grant is a drunkard but he fights and gets the attention of Lincoln Fort Henry and Fort Donelson were important because he took 14,000 troops Grant wins Shiloh, Corinth he turns in a lot of causalities but he knew he could replace his losses but the south could not Grant turns in results THE STRUGGLE TO FIND A GOOD UNION GENERAL McClellan doesn’t attack unless he absolutely has to Lincoln will send a telegraph to ‘borrow’ the army since McClellan won’t use it the union wins 6 out of 7 battles in the peninsula THE BATTLE OF ANTIETAM after McClellan is fired and the next one is fired and McClellan is brought back the deadliest day Lee decides the waiting would not work Lee invades Maryland McClellan screws up and inadvertently gives battle plan to other side two armies fight all day and Lee has to quit the field because they are so exhausted the north can claim the victory even though the south really won because the south had to return to camp Burnside’s Bridge5,000 dead in one day we get photographs of the dead, the first time we can see the actual depiction and devastation enough of a victory that Lincoln can do what he’s wanted to do since the war began THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION says that slaves in states or parts of states in rebellion would be freed the south thought if they end the war, they can keep their slaves didn’t free a single slave people are not wanting to join the draft but if they shift the focus on slavery, maybe the South could get more involvement this is unconstitutional; the President doesn’t have the right to do this this is not about preserving the Union but about a ‘higher purpose’ isolates the south THE BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG nothing the north can do the north loses too many and becomes a crippling defeat TRANSITIONING THE WAR FROM UNION TO SLAVERY the Union is not successful, the war stalemates the confederates cannot stop the north but the union can’t win over the South entering the 3 year of war in 1863 if they win the war, can slavery stay intact? if they do win and slavery continues, this will happen all over again THE AMERICAN CIVIL WARFIGHTING TO END SLAVERY, 18631865 ENDING SLAVERY A MILITARY NECESSITY escalation in the north that allows for it to come into its ownfast manufacturing by the end of the war the north is able to produced faster New York Draft Riots ending slavery is a military necessity people begin asking why we don’t just let the south go the people who said they were seen as proslavery Lincoln suspends habeas corpusimpeachable offensehere is the crime (ex. proof of body) Battle of Chancellorsville THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC IN DEFEAT Jackson is killed by friendly fire Lee has lost his left hand Jackson was probably the best commander the union replaces Hooker with Meade but he does fight the north is exhausted by the time we get to Gettysburg we don’t have a good replacement strategy and neither does the south in the north the soldier is provided everything but the south’s soldiers must bring almost everything their selves most of the south didn’t have shoes THE WAR IS BEING WON IN THE WEST 1/4 of the strength of the Confederacy will be cut off if Vicksburg is taken Lee doesn’t have the ability to effectively do this but tries anyway Lee is too confident (huberous) South believes hand of God is directing them Gettysburg is the turn of the war THE HIGH WATER MARK: GETTYSBURG Lee goes into Gettysburg and isn’t expecting the Confederacy to be there but they are and the battle begins we see the union position is saved Lee screws up with Pickett’s Charge and loses 1/3 of his army July 3 , without a doubt this is a union victory worst defeat of Confederate army Lee has to retreat and continues to live another day THE BACK IS BROKEN: VICKSBURG Grant realizes he can live off the land 29,000 Confederates captured TURNING THE TIDE: HONEY SPRINGS called the Gettysburg of the West in a 3week period, the war turns on each major front a number of full blood Indians wanted to side with the union (forming union Indian brigades on their own) first major usage of African American troops (1 Kansas Colored) and that they are equal to fight as white men all but ends regular warfare in Oklahoma territory within 17 days the war has completely shifted and for the Union FREEDMEN IN UNIFORM prove that African Americans can fight the same as white men this gives the north a purpose GETTYSBURG ADDRESS Lincoln’s speech changes the view of the American government must protect the union which people gave their life for to save GRANT TAKES CHARGE Grants idea is attrition war was particularly bloody in the east going to throw everything he has into the war over and over again Grant knows he can replace his losses while Lee cannot Grant also realizes it is election year and he has to win the war as quickly as possible McClellan is running and believes that they should just let the south go SHERMAN’S CAMPAIGN TO THE WEST AND SOUTH Sherman’s idea was to cut what’s left of the confederacy in half Sherman destroys plantations and infrastructure and makes the south the poorest believed that the Confederates would eventually get tired and give up eventually takes Atlanta and the Confederacy is doomed and Lincoln is able to be reelected ELECTION OF 1864 democrats are basically running from the point that the Emancipation Proclamation was a slap in the face; they would run against Lincoln and led by McClellan this election is not a sure thing only 400,000 in the popular vote the Democrats almost win with popular vote but with electoral vote, Lincoln wins by a landslide SHERMAN’S MARCH TO THE SEA all but dooms the Confederacy, marching just because they can destroys everything in his path; total war on fellow Americans not thinking about having to live as one nation with these people, but only thinking about ending the war a song comes from this; the anthem of Sherman’s guys the Confederacy is gone but they still want to fight LINCOLN’S SECOND INAUGURAL Lincoln makes a promise to set the tone for the reconstruction th calls for a constitutional amendment, the 13 amendment barring slavery in the US people are fighting and dying as this speech is happening SIEGE OF PETERSBURG/FALL OF RICHMOND once this goes, this is the end of the war one Petersburg falls, there is nothing to defend Richmond Lee can only retreat to the north retreat 100 miles and by April 9 , there is nothing else they could do SURRENDER OF THE ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA Lincoln realizes that trying them for treason was not what should be done Lincolns says to make terms with Lee the democrats lose all political standing Booth believed he was doing the right thing by assassinating Lincoln because he believe he was tyrannical CRISIS IN THE SOUTH South loses because there is nothing that sets the south apart from the rest of the US; both sides look to the same leaders when you look to God when you win, you also blame god for losing why would you arm slaves if you seceded in order to protect slavery? It doesn’t make sense the South had almost no chance THE CIVIL WAR AS A DEFINING MOMENT IN AMERICAN HISTORY watershed event means things will never be how they were before the federal government is supreme; power expands dramatically a lot of things didn’t have provisions for it in the constitution states are simple geographic entities; no sovereign nations the Gettysburg Address changes the way we see the Constitution; see it as a Declaration of Independence we are about to enter a period of reconstruction in order to make the south operable again this reconstruction was a giant missed opportunity
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