PSY 1010, Sensation and Perception Week 4
PSY 1010, Sensation and Perception Week 4 1010
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madie Ritter on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1010 at Ohio University taught by Sandra Hoyt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Week 4: Chapter 4 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1. SENSATION The physiological process through which you are aware of external stimuli A. Boundaries of sensations i. Absolute threshold: minimum amount of stimulus necessary for detection 50% of the time 1. We can see a candle flame that is 30 miles away on a dark clear night 2. We can hear the ticking of a wristwatch 20 feet away in a quiet room 3. We can taste 1 teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water 4. We can smell 1 drop of perfume in a typical 3 room apartment ii. Just noticeable difference: amount of difference between two stimuli necessary for detection of difference 1. Differences at lower levels are more noticeable than the same differences at higher levels of stimuli 2. PERCEPTION The physiological process of interpreting those stimuli 3. THREE PROCESSES IN SENSATION AND PERCEPTION A. Translation: turning external stimulation into a neural message i. Translating visual images 1. Structure of the eye a. Properties of light: wavelength and intensity b. Receptor cells i. Rods: detect information about intensity (brightness) ii. Cones: detect information from the wavelengths of light (color) iii. A message through the eye moves from the receptor cells to bipolar cells to the ganglion cell to the optic nerve 2. Problems in visual translation a. Color blindness and night blindness 3. How do we see color? a. Trichromatic theory i. 3 types of cones detect 3 primary colors 1. red, green, blue b. Or the opposite: processing theory i. 6 primary colors are detected in pairs 1. red and green, blue and yellow, and black and white ii. color receptors work in opposing fashion c. rebound effect produces after images B. Extraction: breaking the message down into basic components for processing i. Many parts of the brain get the information through a process 1. The thalamus gets 50% of visual signals a. i.e. detail, color, brightness, movement, and depth 2. The occipital lobe is the next step a. Feature detectors: single types of cells responsible for specific information C. Interpretation: re-combining all the processed information i. Building a stable understanding of the stimulus or event ii. Knowledge, expectations, and rules impact our interpretations iii. Gestalt rules for organizing information 1. Figure and ground (foreground and background) 2. Proximity: objects near each other tend to be grouped together 3. Similarity: items that are similar are grouped 4. Closure: finishing something your eyes do not fully see 5. Continuity: lines are seen as following the smoothest path 6. Common fate link: objects moving are grouped 4. OTHER SENSES A. Hearing i. Receptor cells: hair cells in cochlea ii. Amplitude: loudness, frequency, pitch 1. Wave of sound activates hair cells, peak at certain place corresponding to certain frequency 2 2. The number of hair cells that are stimulated relates to information about loudness iii. Hearing problems 1. Problem with the eardrum has to do with amplitude 2. Problem with the cochlea has to do with frequency 3. Sounds above 85 decibels can be harmful a. A person whispering is about 25 decibels b. A normal conversation is about 60 decibels c. A baby’s cry is about 90 decibels B. Smell i. Olfactory receptors ii. Messages sent to amygdala and hippocampus iii. Anosmia: complete loss of sense of smell C. Taste i. Gustatory cells activated by food molecules ii. Many flavors are a combination of taste and smell 1. Synesthesia: intermingling of senses iii. Supertasters: can distinguish flavors exceptionally well D. Touch i. Sensitivity to touch ii. The what and where systems of touch 1. Pain a. A-delta fibers: throbbing pain b. C fibers: (quick pain) c. Gate control theory of pain: there is a certain point where your body experiences too much pain and no longer lets you experience pain after that point 2. Kinesthesis: sense of body position and movement 3. Vestibular sense: motors your heads movement and your balance 3
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