AY 101 - Sept 29 Lecture Notes
AY 101 - Sept 29 Lecture Notes AY 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah L on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jeremy Bailin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see AY 101 - Intro to Astronomy - Jeremy Bailin in Astronomy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
AY 101 – SEPT 28 LECTURE NOTES Mercury Small, cooled off quickly o No volcanoes or tectonics to erase craters Similar to Earth’s moon Was there ever geological activity on the moon orMercury? Yes, not so much on Mercury as on the moon Venus Thick CO2 atmosphere, some N2, sulfur dioxide clouds that rain sulfuric acid Surface temperature 470 degrees Celsius (almost 900 degrees Fahrenheit) Some volcanic activity Almost same size and orbit as earth, why are they so different? o Large, inside is still molten hot Volcanoes: provided N2, CO2, H2O; greenhouse effect Tectonics: erase impact craters o Slightly closer to sun than earth is Too hot for liquid water, originally H2O, CO2all stayed in atmosphere Massive greenhouse effect Water vapor boiled off into space leaving CO2 atmosphere Mars Red color due to iron oxides Thin CO2 atmosphere Some volcanic activity, mostly in the past Some craters Water on Mars o Polar ice caps o Lots of geological features caused by liquid water erosion, mostly over two billion years old o No doubt once liquid water on Mars Medium Size: inside was molten hot for a while o Volcanoes: provided N2, CO2, H2O; greenhouse effect o Tectonics: erased impact craters o Magnetic field: protected atmosphere Moderate distance from sun o Liquid water temperatures (with greenhouse effect) o Most carbon dioxide dissolved into oceans However, the insides cooled o Lost volcanoes, tectonics, and regulation of carbon cycle o Water freezes o Therefore, Mars was too small to keep its earth-like features The Jovian Planets (“Gas Giants”) Jupiter (visible clouds, gaseous hydrogen, liquid hydrogen, metallic hydrogen) Saturn Uranus (visible clouds, gaseous hydrogen) Neptune Internal Structure Metal/rock cores: 10 earth masses in all cases Hydrogen compounds = water, ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) Hydrogen and helium (especially Jupiter and Saturn) Jupiter’s Clouds Colors we see depend how deep we see (whether the upper layers are cloudy) o (atmosphere to surface) stratosphere, (dark grey), haze (grey), troposphere (grey), ammonia ice (orange), ammonium hydrosulfide ice (red), water ice (blue) o Uranus, Neptune: blue methane clouds Saturn’s Rings All the outer planets have rings, but Saturn has the most prominent ones 10,000x thinner than paper Dust-meter-sized chunks of ice So prominent due to how much light they reflect Rings Would dissipate after millions of years if left undisturbed – can’t be left over from the formation of the planets 4.5 billion years ago Created by some random recent event? No—all Jovian planets have rings, so it must be a universal phenomenon Must be continually replenished Small “moonlets” get continually impacted by sand-sized particles, released new ring particles JovianMoons Jovian planets have a ton of moons Like small terrestrial planets, but colder (more ices (hydrogen compounds) than rock) o Io (of Jupiter) Most volcanic body in the solar system Why, if it’s so much smaller than earth? o There must be another source of heat than the core, however, friction does keep the inside hot after being “squished” and “unsquished” o Tidal Heating: elliptical orbit, strength of tidal forces constantly changes its shape Some volcanoes can spew lava out into space All rock and metal o Europa (of Jupiter) Covered by 100km-thick H2O layer Ice at surface, but deep liquid ocean beneath Tectonic activity due to tidal heating keeps the insides warm o Enceladus (of Saturn) Icy moon with ongoing tectonic activity (smooth surface, ice jets from internal processes) Many show recent or ongoing tectonic, volcanic activity despite their small size o Tidal Heating: inner moons feel strong tidal forces from their large planets (eg. Io) that deform them and heat them o Composition: Made of ices that are molten at a much lower temperature than the rock that drives the tectonics of terrestrial planets Either can drive geological activity
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