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AY 101 - Sept 29 Lecture Notes

by: Savannah L

AY 101 - Sept 29 Lecture Notes AY 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Astronomy > AY 101 > AY 101 Sept 29 Lecture Notes
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Thursday, September 29, 2016 Lecture Notes
AY 101 - Intro to Astronomy - Jeremy Bailin
Jeremy Bailin
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah L on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jeremy Bailin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see AY 101 - Intro to Astronomy - Jeremy Bailin in Astronomy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
AY 101 – SEPT 28 LECTURE NOTES Mercury  Small, cooled off quickly o No volcanoes or tectonics to erase craters  Similar to Earth’s moon  Was there ever geological activity on the moon orMercury?  Yes, not so much on Mercury as on the moon Venus  Thick CO2 atmosphere, some N2, sulfur dioxide clouds that rain sulfuric acid  Surface temperature 470 degrees Celsius (almost 900 degrees Fahrenheit)  Some volcanic activity  Almost same size and orbit as earth, why are they so different? o Large, inside is still molten hot  Volcanoes: provided N2, CO2, H2O; greenhouse effect  Tectonics: erase impact craters o Slightly closer to sun than earth is  Too hot for liquid water, originally  H2O, CO2all stayed in atmosphere  Massive greenhouse effect  Water vapor boiled off into space leaving CO2 atmosphere Mars  Red color due to iron oxides  Thin CO2 atmosphere  Some volcanic activity, mostly in the past  Some craters  Water on Mars o Polar ice caps o Lots of geological features caused by liquid water erosion, mostly over two billion years old o No doubt once liquid water on Mars  Medium Size: inside was molten hot for a while o Volcanoes: provided N2, CO2, H2O; greenhouse effect o Tectonics: erased impact craters o Magnetic field: protected atmosphere  Moderate distance from sun o Liquid water temperatures (with greenhouse effect) o Most carbon dioxide dissolved into oceans  However, the insides cooled o Lost volcanoes, tectonics, and regulation of carbon cycle o Water freezes o Therefore, Mars was too small to keep its earth-like features The Jovian Planets (“Gas Giants”)  Jupiter (visible clouds, gaseous hydrogen, liquid hydrogen, metallic hydrogen)  Saturn  Uranus (visible clouds, gaseous hydrogen)  Neptune Internal Structure  Metal/rock cores: 10 earth masses in all cases  Hydrogen compounds = water, ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4)  Hydrogen and helium (especially Jupiter and Saturn) Jupiter’s Clouds  Colors we see depend how deep we see (whether the upper layers are cloudy) o (atmosphere to surface) stratosphere, (dark grey), haze (grey), troposphere (grey), ammonia ice (orange), ammonium hydrosulfide ice (red), water ice (blue) o Uranus, Neptune: blue methane clouds Saturn’s Rings  All the outer planets have rings, but Saturn has the most prominent ones  10,000x thinner than paper  Dust-meter-sized chunks of ice  So prominent due to how much light they reflect Rings  Would dissipate after millions of years if left undisturbed – can’t be left over from the formation of the planets 4.5 billion years ago  Created by some random recent event? No—all Jovian planets have rings, so it must be a universal phenomenon  Must be continually replenished  Small “moonlets” get continually impacted by sand-sized particles, released new ring particles JovianMoons  Jovian planets have a ton of moons  Like small terrestrial planets, but colder (more ices (hydrogen compounds) than rock) o Io (of Jupiter)  Most volcanic body in the solar system  Why, if it’s so much smaller than earth? o There must be another source of heat than the core, however, friction does keep the inside hot after being “squished” and “unsquished” o Tidal Heating: elliptical orbit, strength of tidal forces constantly changes its shape  Some volcanoes can spew lava out into space  All rock and metal o Europa (of Jupiter)  Covered by 100km-thick H2O layer  Ice at surface, but deep liquid ocean beneath  Tectonic activity due to tidal heating keeps the insides warm o Enceladus (of Saturn)  Icy moon with ongoing tectonic activity (smooth surface, ice jets from internal processes)  Many show recent or ongoing tectonic, volcanic activity despite their small size o Tidal Heating: inner moons feel strong tidal forces from their large planets (eg. Io) that deform them and heat them o Composition: Made of ices that are molten at a much lower temperature than the rock that drives the tectonics of terrestrial planets  Either can drive geological activity


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