Week 8 CBIO 2200
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CBIO 2200 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Cellular biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
WEEK 8 NOTES (9/20-9/22) Bone remodeling • Bone deposit- building new bone or depositing new bone tissue in existing areas • Bone resorption- breakdown and removal of bone tissue Bone remodeling occurs • In response to hormonal changes • In response to mechanical stress • Bone turnover is constant! (Constant process throughout your life time) Hormonal Regulation of Bone Growth • Growth hormone • Thyroid hormone • Calcitriol • Sex hormones -Estrogen -Testosterone • Parathyroid Hormone • Calcitonin [Pituitary dwarfs and giants] [Acromegaly- excess growth occurs after the epithelial plates have closed. Square jaw] Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin • Regulate Ca2+ in the plasma • Opposite effects The skeleton is a bank of calcium and phosphorus Parathyroid hormone (negative feedback loop) • Released from parathyroid glands (distinct from the thyroid gland) • Released in response to LOW plasma Ca2+ levels • Stimulates osteoclasts and osteoblasts Calcitonin (negative feedback loop) • Released from the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland • Released in response to HIGH plasma levels of Ca2+ • Inhibits osteoclasts Osteoporosis- loss of spongy bone and then more subjective to compressions What do joints (articulations) do? • Give the skeleton mobility • Hold the skeleton together Functional Classification of Joints (what do they do?) • Synarthroses (syn = together) -Immovable • Amphiarthroses (amphi = from both sides) -Slightly movable • Diarthroses (dia = through or apart) -Movable Structural Classification of Joints (what are they made of?) • Fibrous • Cartilaginous • Synovial Examples of fibrous joints (short fibers) • Sutures -Skull (increased surface area of connection because of zig-zag) -Nearly immovable • Syndesmoses -Connected by a ligament (distal end of tibia and fibula) • Gomphoses (gomphi = nail or bolt) -Tooth in bony socket Examples of cartilaginous joints • Synchondrosis -Rigid cartilage “bridge” between 2 bones -Epiphyseal plate • Symphyses -Articular cartilage -Public symphysis -Intervertebral joints What kinds of movements do you expect between the vertebrae? Rotation, flexion, extension, lateral flexion; amphiarthrotic/cartilaginous joints Synarthrotic and amphiarthrotic joints are in the axial skeleton Synovial joints • Joint is surrounded by a fibrous capsule (thickening of the periosteum) • Articulating bones are separated in a fluid-filled cavity No true epithelium, carries nutrients to the cartilage, removes waste, shock absorber; the cartilage is hyaline-like Features of synovial joints Synovial cavity- space that contains synovial fluid Articular cartilage- hyaline-like, thin, slick Synovial fluid- thick and lubricating, similar to interstitial fluid Articular cartilage- 2 layers, continuous with the periosteum Other accessory structures Reinforcing ligaments -Intra and extra-capsular Cartilage menisci (meniscus-es?) Fat pads Bursae -Fibrous sacs of fluid Tendon sheaths -Elongated bursae What kinds of movements do you expect at synovial joints? Gliding- sliding Angular- changing the angle between two bones Rotation- rotating about the axis of the bones “Special” movements associated with particular joints The type of joint depends on the bones in the area Plane joint- sliding or gliding; two flat surfaces; carpels in the wrist Hinge joint- cylinder surface with a half cylinder that fits around it; elbow; flexion and extension Pivot joint- one cylinder and one structure that surrounds it completely; rotation about the long axis of the joint Condylid joint- oval surface and an oval shaped cup; movement in two directions but not in circles Saddle joint- looks like a rider sitting on a saddle; same movement as condyloid joint; no rotation Ball and socket joint- shoulder and hip; one articulating surface that’s round, and one spherical sup shaped; most possible movement; can decrease angle in every direction and can rotate What movements are associated with hinge joints? Flexion and extension When you do jumping jacks, what movements are associated with the lower limbs? Abduction and adduction; for jumping? Do you use flexion and extension too? Chewing involves what movements? Elevation and depressed Pointing the toes? Plantar flexion Moving the palm so it faces anteriorly involves what movements? Supination Special movements Seen only at specific articulations
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