Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes PSY 1010
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shannan Dillen on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Ohio University taught by Sandra Hoyt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chapter 2: Methods in Psychology How psychologists answer questions about human behavior Scientific Method 1. Form research methods 2. Develop a theory – broad explanation for behavior 3. Form hypothesis – specific, testable predictions of the theory 4. Test assumptions – attempt to refute theory 5. Report results Descriptive Research Describing various aspects of human and animal behavior o Useful for new phenomena o Observe and record behaviors systematically according to specific rules Types: o Naturalistic Observation o Case Studies o Surveys Correlational Research Examining relationships between variables Allows prediction of behavior Types: o Positive Correlation As one variable increases, the other also increases Correlation does not necessarily equal causation. o Negative Correlation As one variable increases, the other variable decreases Ex: temperature outside and sales of hot chocolate Two Important Aspects of Correlation 1. Nature of correlation (direction) indicted by +/- 2. Strength of correlation Correlations range of 0.00 to 1.00 Higher the raw number, the stronger the correlation Experimental Research Manipulation of one or more variables To determine their effects on other variables, while controlling for extraneous factors through a variety of procedures Can determine causality Terms Independent Variable (IV) – manipulated by researcher Dependent Variable (DV) – measured by researcher; subject’s response Ex: Do violent video games increase aggression in children? IV: playing violent video games, level of violence DV: aggression in children Extraneous Variables (EV) – other variables that may cause an effect on your DV o If you do not control, you won’t know if the effect on the DV was caused by the IV or the DV Random Assignment – randomly assign subjects to each level of the IV o Reduces the effects of EV Population – entire group you are studying (group you want to make conclusions about) Sample – subset of population (group you actually test) Experimental Group – receives some level of the IV Control Group – receives no level of the IV Placebo Effect – believing in the treatment can cause the results Include Placebo Group in study – group that receives fake treatment (sugar pill) Double-Blind Procedures – researcher with direct contact with subject and subject don’t know who is getting what Ethics in Psychology Research with humans o Peer review and approval o Minimize risk to participant o Minimize deception in research o Informed consent o Debriefing Therapy o Confidentiality
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