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Chapter 3 Notes

by: Shannan Dillen

Chapter 3 Notes PSY 1010

Shannan Dillen
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes include information on different types of behavior, and how things effect the brain. It also includes different parts of the brain and what they do.
General Psychology
Sandra Hoyt
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shannan Dillen on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Ohio University taught by Sandra Hoyt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chapter 3: Neuroscience and Behavior Early Ideas about the Physiology of Human Behavior  The 4 Humors  The heart or the brain? o Originally thought heart controlled everything  Because we feel everything in our hearts  Phrenology – study of bumps of the head o 1800 or so o Busts mapped out where bumps were and what they meant  Case studies of brain injury o 1848 – Phineas Gage Sending and Receiving Messages  Neurons o Sensory neurons – messages from senses o Motor neurons – messages to muscles o Interneurons – connecting sensory and motor neurons  Parts of a neuron 1. Soma or cell body 2. Dendrites 3. Axon 4. Myelin sheath 5. Axon terminal and Terminal Buttons 6. Synapse  Sending a neural message o Electrochemical process  Electrically charged ions flow in and out of the soma through ion channels  Sodium and potassium (+)  Chloride (-) o Resting potential – cell is not firing  Negatively charged on inside (~70 millivolts) o Action potential (AP) – firing of neuron  Stimulation of a neuron must reach a threshold  Neuron becomes positively charged as sodium flows in (~40 millivolts) Sending Messages Between Cells  Neurotransmitters – chemicals located in terminal buttons o Attach to receptor sites on dendrites of another neuron  Process of re-uptake o Neurotransmitter is reabsorbed Neurotransmitters and Their Effects  Excitatory – aid in action (accelerator) o Acetylcholine  Memory, attention, motivation  Muscle contractions (nerve gas results in overuse; botulin blocks its use) o Norepinephrine  Learning, memory  Alertness, wakefulness  Moods (depression and mania) o Glutamate – used by most neurons  Increase efficiency of neural connections  Can cause problems during brain damage  Inhibitory – aid in minimizing effects (brake) o Dopamine  Attention, learning, pleasure, motivation  Associations of sensations with memories and emotions  Smooth movement ex: not enough – Parkinson’s; too much – schizophrenia o Serotonin  Calming effect, promotes sleep, dreaming, pain relief  Eating and appetite  Low levels result in depression and aggression o GABA  Major inhibitory neurotransmitter  Allows for precise muscular coordination  Inhibits eating and aggression  Alcoholism, tetanus o Endorphins  Body’s natural pain relievers How Drugs Work in Your Brain  Agonists – drug mimics a neurotransmitter (fit into the receptor site well enough to work) o Morphine (endorphins); L-Dopa (dopamine)  Neural networks form and spread throughout the brain as an individual gains experience.  Window of opportunity arise for development where the brain’s plasticity is strongest. Development of the Brain  Billions of neurons form prenatally  Neural connections (networks) form with experience o Window of opportunity for development  Plasticity of brain (flexibility) Major Structures of the Brain Brainstem  The oldest region of the brain in terms of evolution  Controls the brain’s most basic functions Medulla and Pons  Breathing, heart rate, sleep/arousal, circulation Cerebellum  Coordinating movement, balance o Alcohol effects this region Reticular Formation  Alertness, sleep/arousal Mid Brain  Neural Relay Station o An amplifier for restoring the strength of a transmitted signal Superior and Inferior Colliculus  Coordinates movement with sight and sound Substantia Nigra  Produces dopamine Limbic System Thalamus  Sensory relay station  Receives information from all senses except for smell  Combines sight and sound for simultaneous Hypothalamus  The “pleasure center”  Controls hunger, thirst, body temperature, and sexual behavior Amygdala  The emotion center Hippocampus  Memory center Cerebral Cortex  Two hemispheres Corpus Collosum  Nerve fibers that connect the two hemispheres Hemispheric Lateralization  The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and vice versa Hemispheric Specialization  The left hemisphere controls language and analytical thought  The right hemisphere controls spatial ability and creativity Split Brain Surgery – a procedure used to lessen the seizures of epilepsy patients in which the corpus collosum is severed The 4 Lobes Frontal Lobe – logic, reasoning, motor cortex Parietal Lobe – somatosensory cortex Occipital Lobe – Visual cortex Temporal Lobe – auditory cortex


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