Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes PSY 1010
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shannan Dillen on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Ohio University taught by Sandra Hoyt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Sensation – physiological process through which you are aware of external stimuli Perception – physiological process of interpreting those stimuli Boundaries of Sensations Absolute threshold – minimum amount of stimulus necessary for detection 50% of the time The average human can detect: o Candle flame at 30 miles away on a dark, clear night o Ticking of a wristwatch at 20 ft in a quiet room o 1 teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water o 1 drop of perfume in a typical 3 room apartment Just noticeable difference – amount of difference between 2 stimuli necessary for detection of difference o Difference at lower levels are more noticeable than the same differences at higher levels of stimuli Processes in Sensation and Perception 1. Translation – turning external stimulation into a neural message Ex: translating visual images -structure of eye -properties of light -wavelength (color) and intensity (brightness) -receptor cells (sensory neurons) in eye -rods – intensity -cones – wavelength Retina detects properties of light because of receptor cells Pathway of message: Receptor cells – bipolar cells – ganglion cell – optic nerve -problems in visual translation -color blindness (# of cones) and night blindness (# of rods) How do we see color? Trichromatic Theory o 3 types of cones detect 3 primary colors Red, green, blue Mix all – get white Combinations – see other colors Ex: purple – red and blue cones both giving info Opponent – Processing Theory o Still 3 types of cones o 6 primary colors in pairs Red and green, blue and yellow, black and white o Color receptors work in opposing fashion o Rebound effect produces after images 2. Extraction – breaking the message down into basic components for processing Many parts of the brain get the info o Thalamus gets 80% of visual signals Detail, color brightness, movement, depth o Occipital Lobe is next stop Senses Hearing o Receptor cells – hair cells in cochlea o Amplitude (loudness) and frequency (pitch) o Wave of sound activates hair cells, peak at certain place corresponding to certain frequency o Number of hair cells stimulated relates information about loudness o Hearing problems Amplitude Eardrum damage – doesn’t get amplification right Hearing aid can help Frequency Cochlea – sound getting in, but cells can’t fire Implants can help – artificial neuron cells o Sounds exceeding 85 decibels are harmful Whispering – 25 decibels Talking – 60 decibels Alarm clock – 80 decibels Crying children – 90 decibels Subway train – 100 decibels Earbuds at average level – 100 decibels – directly in ear Pain at exposure to noise – 125 decibels Smell o Olfactory receptors (5 million) o Messages sent to amygdala and hippocampus o Anosmia – complete loss of sense of smell o Dogs can detect things with smell – seizures, anxiety, cancer Taste o Gustatory cells activated by food molecules (taste buds) o Many flavors (combination of taste and smell) o Supertasters – have as many as four times as many taste buds Synesthesia – intermingling of senses o Ex: hear sounds → see colors, hear sounds → feel things o Tends to run in families Touch o Sensitivity to touch o The “what” and “where” systems What parts of body are what Ex: you know where your left foot is without seeing it Where body parts are o Pain Tells you something is wrong A-delta fibers – send major pain messages to brain Ex: Pains from a car accident C fibers – send messages of quick pain Ex: Pain from a paper cut Gate control theory – not feeling extreme pain – too many pain signals could be too much to process Gate in the system – both fibers send messages – too many so few, if any, messages get through o Kinesthesis – sense of body position and movement o Vestibular sense – balance Monitors your head’s position and movement Inner ear – semicircular canal Fluid keeps you balanced
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