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Developmental Psychology with Dr. Marshall Week 6

by: Regan Notetaker

Developmental Psychology with Dr. Marshall Week 6 PSY 2300

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Psychology > PSY 2300 > Developmental Psychology with Dr Marshall Week 6
Regan Notetaker

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About this Document

autism, adhd notes, and the beginning of childhood socioemotional development. These cover lecture material from this week
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Seth Marshall
Class Notes
ADHD, autism, emotional development
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Notetaker on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2300 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
Developmental Psychology 2300 Week 6 Lecture 9/27/16 Autism 1. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication 2. Social Interaction 3. Repetitive and Stereotyped Behaviors Higher Divorce rate in families that have an Autistic child (23.5%) compared to families with normal children (14%) Indication that families need resources too. Male to Female Autism Ratio 3:1 – 4:1 1-2/1000 children affected 6/1000 children affected with Aspergers Prevalence of Autism increasing significantly, due to diagnostic practices and more awareness Causes? Genetics- heritability as high as 80-90% -Worth Considering: Modern patterns of Marriage, among the children of engineers, autism is found twice as often as in the general population. (intellectual profiling) Empathizing vs. Systemizing hypothesis  Empathizing: identify others’ emotions and thoughts  Systemizing: analyze rules that govern a system. Do individuals with autism have an extreme systemizing brain? Potential Environmental Factors 1. Advanced age in either parent 2. Prenatal environment (diabetics, bleeding, antipsychotics) 3. Maternal infection 4. Teratogens (pesticides) Refrigerator Mother Hypothesis- not responsive moms- not supported Vaccine Overload Hypothesis (not supported): autism most studied developmental disease Autism assessment might include the following: Parent, teacher interviews, child observation, developmental education history, behavioral analysis, intellectual assessment, play (social) assessment, autism rating scale, executive functioning scale Jean Piaget Concrete Operational: decentration, kids start to master things they could not cognitively understand in the preop stage, understanding multiple dimensions, empathizing, understanding perspective  “The concrete operational child is entering the planet of adults”  Children solving problems that apply to actual objects or events (concrete)  Difficulty with abstract and hypothetical thinking Executive Functioning and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Intelligence is largely at the mercy of self-control Executive Functioning: orchestration of basic cognitive processes during goal- oriented problem solving Examples: goals, planning, organization, prioritizing, etc. 1. Working Memory: temporary storage of information - staying focused* 2. Inhibitory Control: stop a behavioral/mental process (simon says) Walter Mischel: Stanford Professor of Psychologist The marshmallow project: leave kid in room with a marshmallow and tell them they can have 2 if they wait til the caregiver comes back with a second one High Delayers: better executive functioning, self control etc Low delayers: better with self control, higher BMI, attention deficit, substance abuse, lower S.A.T., more relationship problems ADHD: more time needed to develop self control skills, executive functioning Lecture Notes 9/29/16 Neuropsychology of Autism  Small Head circumference at birth  Significant increase in head circumference within 1 year  This suggests there are abnormal patterns of neural connectivity Child with ADHD Heinrich Hoffman (Fidgety Phillip-1904): working predominantly with males, published story about “Fidgety Philip” in medical journal describing the symptoms of ADHD Symptoms: Inattention, Hyperactivity, Impulsivity (primary deficit) Affects 3-10% of U.S. population Male children between 2 and 4 times more likely to be diagnosed Neuropsychology of ADHD *brain develops occipital – frontal, bottom - up, inside – out It is taking more time for the frontal lobe to develop, ADHD might just be a lag in the development of the Frontal Lobe. Going at a slower brain. ADHD assessment Parent and teacher interview, observation of student, developmental/ education history, behavioral ratings (parent and teacher), intellectual assessment, ADHD rating scales, inhibition measures, executive function rating scales School Based Difficulties associated with ADHD: disruptive behavior, low rates on for time on task, low test scores, inaccurate and incomplete schoolwork, difficulties getting along with others, TROUBLE WITH MATH How to treat? Give them organizational tools and skills, limit distractors, positive reinforcement before punishment, parenting with more reminders and auditory and visual cues, break down school work into smaller sections, extended time on tests, proofreading Working memory impairments and impulsivity effect processing speed *ADHD does not effect IQ, it effects SHORT TERM MEMORY Psychopharmacology: Ritalin is the ADHD drug- works as a psychostimulant to stimulate the frontal lobe and executive functioning skills. 70-80% of children taking ADHD medicines improved academically, attention, and impulse control ADHD medicines can be utilized when needed, and can be stopped at any time (medication vacation- goes off meds for a while to see if they are still needed) Sleep Deprivation correlates with ADHD Childhood: Socioemotional Development Children at play interpret the world according to themselves, they learn to symbolize- a very important skill for young children The power of play makes the brain grow, outside experiences help form the synapses in the brain. First 8 years the most critical period of development in life Play allows children to follow their interests while challenging themselves and learning. Play develops strong sense of self (self esteem, self control, self regard), allows them to have a sense of control, understand social norms, practice adult roles. Children live in a “world of CEO’s” because other people are constantly controlling their life, play is therapeutic because it gives them a sense of power and control. Mildred Parten (1932) systematically observed and categorized types of play 5 types of play 1. Solitary play- child alone and completely engrossed in what they are doing, typical between 2-3, egocentrism 2. Onlooker play- watching another kid play, learning through observation 3. Parallel play- children in close proximity, but each child its doing its own thing 4. Associative play- kids playing together, now becoming more social, taking more enjoyment in social interaction rather than physical objects (toys) 5. Cooperative play- social, role play (supermarket), playing doctor and patient As children grow up, they play more in the style of 4 and 5 and less in 1,2, and 3. This is due to their social development Children are less social due to screen time (electronics) which is changing child play and social development.


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