Individual Differences Week 6
Individual Differences Week 6 PSY 345
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cimmi Alvarez on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 345 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Elliot Tucker-Drob in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Individual Differences in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Week 6 GRIT: Personality and Perseverance for Long Term Goals How much you stick to your goals and how you don’t give up Think about the past and how you are typically Personality test- Looks a lot like conscientiousness. West Point Looked at people starting at West Point A lot of people end up dropping out Looked at their Grit Score and their Whole candidate score Candidate score- what they are choosing people by No matter what whole candidate score is there is a 6% chance drop pit pf the summer Higher grit less likely to drop out Grittier you are the more likely you are going to stick to somethings 2005 Scripps National Spelling Bee Rounds reached in the spelling bee (Average Final Round Reached) Grit People in the top grit go the farthest. More predictive than IQ Self Control Doesn’t really predict how far you go IQ The higher IQ up until the 3 quartile predicts how far you advance Most of the kids getting to this level of competition probably have really high IQs and have full range of GRIT but not full range of IQ. GRIT matters but these results don’t mean that IQ is irrelevant Results for Grit Grit and Big five-dimension correlation Conscientiousness- .77 Neuroticism- -.40 Agreeableness- .24 Extraversion- .20 Openness to experience- .06 In children the Overlap on different dimensions is higher than in adults 2 hypothesis kids don’t have a good handle on the language and its hard for them to distinguish between different behaviors during self -report Developmental- the dimensions become more distinct as you develop and start using your personality in different situations Children less distinct from each other as children. The st andard deviations grow between children up until 12, 13, or 14 then stabilizes to the adult level of variance. How does GRIT relate to how far you expect to go in school? UTGPA and Grit predict how far you want to go to school How Does our Class Compare? SAT Scores and SES Look at the whole range of something in order to understand how they affect something. Looking at HS GPA for UT HS GPA doesn’t predict much because we are the top range here at UT Self-Control 2 Following same sample of participants from childhood until they were in their 30s 95% retention over the study period Average of how self-controlled they are between 3-11 years old Waited and reassessed at age 32 Checked Physical Health and Substance use More self-control they were between 3-11 The healthier they were and the less substance use SES, Income, Financial Planfullness (how much is saved for retirement, savings account) Higher SES, More Retirement, Less financial problems, More money High self-control Single Parent Child Rearing More self-control the less likely you are to be raising a kid on your own Criminal Conviction More self-control the less likely to be convicted Snare Hypothesis Start off making a few bad mistakes and has to live with the consequences for a long time Call these developmental snares Make one or two mistakes and they just stick with you Environmental Influences on Development How much does schooling affect intelligence? Ceci’s Year of completed Education and Intelligence 3 More education people have the better they score on the tests Smarter people could go farther in school because they are smarter Correlation between .6 and .8 in Ceci’s data Summer Vacation and IQ Achievement IQ decrement (or slower growth) Occurs over summer vacation from school Longer in school do better. Longer out of school the lower their IQ scores are. In sociology use race to determine SES- different races, on average, have different SES condition. Minorities tend to be lower SES- Problematic Inequalities outside of school depending on SES are larger than the inequalities of schools. Outside inequalities widen the gap between different SES groups “In low income youngsters… summer activities are least likely to resemble school.” Intermittent School Attendance and IQ Children who rarely/intermittently go to school Physical disabled Children of travelers, canal boat pilots Intelligence of children decrease from youngest to oldest. The older child has a lower IQ than the younger children Get this effect because: they miss the amount of school relative to children their age grows every year- they are more behind than other children their age 4 Evidence from the Blue Ridge Mountains Historically settlers settled in small isolated villages and never really had contact with the outside. The schools didn’t exist, sporadically open, open for only a short amount of time. Not much bellow national average for 6 year olds but low for 14 year olds Delayed onset of school on IQ WWII Holland’s elementary schools were closed IQ scores of children dropped by approximately 7 IQ points Because of Integration south closes schools and black students lost approximately 6 IQ points per year Early Termination of Schooling and IQ Compared Swedish men who dropped out of high school to those who finished. Matched on IQ, SES, and GPA at 13. Tested for mandatory military registration at 18 Each school year not competed, there was a loss of 1.8 IQ points, up to a maximum of 8 IQ points Changes in compulsory schooling in Norway Schooling in adolescence raises IQ scores. Norway makes laws that students have to go to school up until 9 grade; in the past could drop out in 7 grade. th Allowed a period of time to implement the new law. Different regions complied at different times. Time of schooling in years went up .3 of a year. IQ went up 1.5 points Similarity of Aptitude and Achievement Test Scores Strong correlation between IQ tests and how well you do on Reading, writing, science, and math 5 Correlation between cognitive ability and schooling is .81 How far people have gone in school and their academic achievement correlates with IQ. Cahan and Cohen Logic Birthday cutoffs for school entry occur in December. You can compare a student with a birthday 1 day before the cutoff to on with a birthday 1 day after. For all intents and purposes, the students are the same age but they differ a fu ll year of schooling. Young for your grade, doing the same work as the older kids and forced to keep up with it Older in grade, just missing cutoffs, miss an entire year of academic stipulation. Results Positive slope with discontinuities. The grades do not connect with the tails of the next. There is a jump - Caused by having an extra year of schooling because of the cutoff Verbal ratio 2.0 Verbal oddities 7.0 Fluid Tests closer for schooling and age Cognitive Recovery in Socially Deprived Young Children: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project In Romania problem- a lot of parents give kids up for adoption and not very many people want to adopt babies. Put in orphanages that are in poor quality. Kids not getting very much attention When kids adopted it is a lottery - Random Assignment so made 6 Method Settings: Romania Groups: Kids in orphanages and those adopted Randomization vs. Observation Outcomes measured Bayley Scales of Infant Development Wechsler Preschool Primary Ethical Safeguards Approval from ethics board locally and here in the US Didn’t start testing these kids for the sake of science - did allow children who lost it then they could get adopted later. Still assigned to the not adopted group for the study though. Keeps it from being an observational study. Study didn’t hurt the kids any more than doing nothing would Principal of Clinical equipoise Ethical dilemma when researchers start seeing that one treatment is better than the other. As soon as it is clear that the treatment is working, Ethically stop the study and get as many people in the control group as possible the correct treatment. They stopped the study once they saw IQ differences and tried to get as many kids adopted as possible Results Institutionalized group IQs in the 70s FCG started in orphanages then were adopted IQs in the 80s NIG with parents but parents similar to the others 7 IQs over 100 Kids adopted. When you were adopted based on lottery (Random Assignment) 0-18 months 94 IQ 18-24 months 89 IQ 24-30 months 80 IQ 30+ month 80 IQ Experimental Effects on Personality and Well-Being Inadequate Orphanage Care 50 years Later Chronic Illness Orphans more likely to have chronic illnesses Psychosocial Adaptation 50% orphans never married Orphans 50% don’t interact with other people Equally satisfied with life Suicidal thoughts more prevalent in Orphans Attempted suicide about 30% orphans What about Major Life events in adulthood? Adaptation and set-point Model of Subjective Well-Being Set Point Theory 8 People can adapt to almost any life event and that happiness levels fluctuate around a biologically determined set point that rarely changes Baseline phase then something happens and life satisfaction goes up for the reaction phase then life goes back to normal and adaptation phase is the new or back to the baseline From Germans- every year given a bunch of different studies, Had been followed since before the big event. Can see baseline before and after Marriage- takes 7years to get back to your set point Widowhood- decline and get better but never back to where you were before Divorce- return toward baseline Unemployment, Disability, and Severe Disability- on average they don’t get back to where they were before. Recover but never recover back to baseline Do people React Differently to Marriage On average go up in life satisfaction from before engagement to marriage then go down a little until reaching baseline Some people gets supper happy and adapts partially but never goes back to baseline Some get unhappy before marriage Do people Adapt Differently to Marriage Some people get happier, some go back to baseline, others continue to get unhappier 9
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