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PUR3000: CH. 7 & 8

by: Anna Cappelli

PUR3000: CH. 7 & 8 PUR3000

Anna Cappelli
GPA 3.85

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these notes cover the class lectures and book readings for chapters 7 and 8
Principles of Public Relations
Class Notes
public relations
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Cappelli on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PUR3000 at University of Florida taught by Kong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
Ch.7 Communications & Theories Lecture What is communication? Communication is a transactional process based on a shared interpretation of reality via symbols The goals of communication process are to inform, persuade, motivate, or achieve mutual understanding. Objectives of Communication Message exposure accuracy in dissemination of the message Acceptance of message attitude change Change in overt behavior 5 Communications Elements Wilbur Schramm’s messge model A sender/source encoder, Schram decoder, A message interer,t model inteer,et decoder encoder A channel messa A receiver ge Feedback Little or no communication Mass is achieved Media unless the sender and receiver share Opinion the experience Leaders 2-Step Flow Theory Followe Followe rs rs opinion leaders: Lazarsfeld et al. suggested that “ideas often flow from radio and print to the opinion leaders and from the to the less active sections of the population” 1. Another mass media influence acts as an opinion leader affecting the receiver’s impression of the initial message 2. The message goes through an opinion leader and then is transmitted to a follower 3. Both the opinion leaders and the followers receive the same message 4. The followers received the message but the opinion leaders do not Word-of-Mouth One of the best forms of Ads/PR Viral marketing via Internet Consumer decision making Use & Gratification Theory Recipient selects information that may be useful to them, either to be entertained, informed, reinforce their opinion and decision making, and decision making about products or services Passive and Active Audiences Active vs. Passive audience Your primary target audience may be different on different occasions Your primary public might be comprised of different people at different times You have to be flexible because the public is not static High involvement (you don’t care about form of information, just the content of the information) vs. low involvement Interaction & Media Dependency Theory 2 Interaction: tell me and I will forget show me and I will remember involve me and I will understand Media dependency Theory: The less direct contact we have with an issue, the more we depend on media Processing Perceptions Uncertainty reduction Theory: People need information about the other party in order to reduce their uncertainty Sociologist Harold Laswell: “who says what, in which channel, to whom, with what effect.” PR professor Walk Seitfert: “Dissemination does not equal publication, and publication does not equal absorption and action.” Social learning theory: Bandura’s social learning theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling Social construction of reality theory: Society is a product created by humans Cognitive Dissonance People desire to have consistency in their lives If campaigns demonstrate 2 conflicting beliefs, they will feel cognitive dissonance Source Credibility Expertise sincerity 3 Trustworthiness attractiveness 5 Stage Adoption Process ***MISSING INFO Diffusion of Innovation Theory 1. Innovator: individuals who are eager to try new ideas 2. early adopter: opinion leaders 3. early majority have a pragmatic approach to adopting ideas 4. late majority: eventually bow to peer pressure 5. laggards: very traditional, and the last group to adopt new ideas *** MISSING INFO Ch.7 Communications & Theories Textbook The 3 step in the PR process is communication – also called execution – most visible part of PR work Patrick Jackson, who was editor of pr reporter believed that the communicator should ask whether the proposed message is (1) appropriate (2) meaningful (3) memorable (4) understandable (5) believable to the prospective recipient Wilbur Schramm, a pioneer in communication theory, first conceptualized a one-way linear model that shows the 5 basic elements of source, encoder, signal, decoder, and destination The 2 ndmodel developed by schramm takes into consideration the idea that communication occurs only if both the sender and the receiver have a field of shared 4 experience, like common language and similar educational levels The 3 model, which incorporates the concept that there is constant feedback between the source and the receiver in a continual loop Grunig postulates that the ideal PR model should be 2-way symmetrical communication, that is, communication balanced between the sender and the receiver Media Uses and gratification theory of communication: basic premise is that the communication process is interactive – the communicator wants to inform and persuade; recipient wants to be entertained, informed, or altered to opportunities that can fulfill individual needs. Mass media is used for surveillance, entertainment, reinforcement, and decision-making Grunig and Hunt suggest that communication strategies be designed to attract the attention of 2 kinds of audiences: those who passively process information and those who actively seek information Passive audiences use communication channels like billboards or radio spots They need messages with style and creativity Channeling – begins a message with a statement that reflects audience values and predispositions There is a large significance in branding Semantic noise – source of blocked communication – technical and bureaucratic jargon Avoid euphemisms – “an inoffensive word or phrase that is less direct and less distasteful than the one that represents reality.” 5 Sleeper effect – there is decreased tendency over time to reject the material presented by a untrustworthy source Entropy- the messages continually lose information as media channels and people process the information and pass it to others Roger’s research shows that people approach innovation in different ways: Innovators – venturesome and eager to try new ideas Early adopters – keep up with new ideas – often opinion leaders Early majority – take a deliberate, pragmatic approach to adopting ideas Late majority- often skeptical and somewhat resistant by eventually bow to peer pressure Laggards – very traditional and the last group to adopt a new idea 6 Ch.8 Evaluation Lecture The systematic assessment of a program and it results To assess progress toward objectives To raise accountability of PR To improve subsequent/ongoing programs To assess return on investment of time & money Management must concur about objectives Realistic, credible, and measurable objectives Plan evaluation – don’t wait Sophisticated techniques and more expertise Computerization (not just clip service), survey, quasi- experimental design Evaluation is an increasing trend, about 5% of budget now, projected to be about 10% of budget in next decade Many evaluation tools borrowed from marketing and advertising Measurement of Production Very basic form of evaluation, not very meaningful Count how many news releases, feature stories, photos are produced in a given time Only emphasizes quantity instead of quality Measurement of Message Exposure Most widely practiced form of evaluation is the compilation print and broadcast mentions, often called “clips” Media impression – how many people have been exposed to the message Hits on the internet Advertising value equivalency (concentrate on output not outcome) Systematic tracking – more sophisticated software, analyze the content of media placements by such variables as market penetration, type of publication, tone of coverage, sources quoted, and mention of key points 800 numbers/requests for information CPM (cost per thousand) is calculated by taking the cost of the publicity program and dividing it by the total media impressions E.g.: produced a sports video for $50,000 but reached 150,000 high schools students. A per person cost of 33 cents Measurement of Audience Awareness Determines if the audience Actually became aware of the message Understood the message Audience surveys Day-after recall – see change in awareness afterwards Measurement of Attitude Changes Changes to audience’s perceptions and attitudes Can be evaluated using pre- and post-measurements of attitudes Benchmark/baseline surveys Audience surveys Measurement of Audience Action Ultimate objective of any PR effort Raising awareness and interest is important, ultimately, the goal is to motivate people to adopt an idea, vote, use a service or buy a product 2 Measurement of Supplemental Activities Communication audits: as assessment of an organization’s entire communications program Pilot tests and spilt messages Meeting and event attendance Newsletter readership Content analysis Ch.8 Evaluation Textbook The fourth step of the PR process is evaluation Media impressions – the potential audience reached by a periodical, a broad-cast program or a website Each instance of a person accessing a site is called a hit or a visit rd Advertising Value Equivalency (AVE) – the 3 most used measurement method in calculating monetary value of message exposure Weighted media cost method measures the cost of media space or time as a means to evaluate Dollar-value approach to measuring publicity effectiveness should be used judiciously The most important concern is that AVEs concentrate on outputs not outcomes 3


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