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Poli 201 Week 7 Interest groups/ Political Parties

by: Andrew Griffin

Poli 201 Week 7 Interest groups/ Political Parties POLI 201 004

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Political Science > POLI 201 004 > Poli 201 Week 7 Interest groups Political Parties
Andrew Griffin

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American National Government
Robert Oldendick
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Griffin on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 201 004 at University of South Carolina taught by Robert Oldendick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Tuesday, September 27, 2016 Poli 201- Week 7 Notes Interest Group Techniques: Direct - Building Coalition: siding with lobbying groups increases the legitimacy of your effort and makes you look more significant - Providing Campaign Assistance: most important because this is where the interest groups sets up phones banks, sending out letters, and give loads of money through their political action committee Interest Group Techniques: Indirect this is where they don't give support directly • - Generating Public Pressure: advertising a social issue so that the public feels pressured to have a reaction. Can be through an opinion poll or an ad campaign - Using Constituents as Lobbyists: getting a person to write to a congressman to explain the position of the “citizen” trying to persuade their congressman to vote a certain way on a bill. Also knows as a shotgun technique when multiple people write in. Many times the constituent who has influence in the community - Holding Marches or Rallies: lets the public officials know how the citizens feel about certain issues. The more people who show up = the more attention from media and officials - Boycotts: not used frequently but it is another tool lobbyist use *These techniques don’t always work because the lobbyists can’t win every time due to competing interest What makes an Interest Group Powerful? - Size: goes along with cohesiveness because the more people who are united the stronger the group will be - Resources: 1 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 - Leadership: the face of the company or someone who represents the company. Needs to be someone who has influence in order for power - Cohesiveness: knowing how to defend your case based on a united, mutual agreement on an issue with factual information Reforms - The federal regulation of Lobbying Act • the act was ineffective, however, as only full-time lobbyist had to register. it was for the disclosure of what the public was looking at in the numbers of lobbyist - The Reforms of 1995 • defined a lobbyist as someone who spends 20% or more of their time lobbying for someone • and if you earn more than $5,000 or more must register within 45 days • provide detail reports quarterly about what bill you lobbied on, how much time you spent on it • subsidiaries of foreign companies based in U.S - Congressional Changes • banned “all expenses paid” trip • stopped the option of “free gifts” • stupid the broad practice of taking members of congress to lunch or dinner, although there are exemptions and exceptions End of Interest Groups Politcal Parties - Party Identification: • a psychological attachment that can persist without legal responsibility or evidence of formal party membership and without a consistent record of party support 2 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 • a very strong attachment, and you are much more likely to vote for the party candidate at all levels (local, state, national) * political parties are not apart of our constitution because they weren't needed at the beginning, but they develop really quickly. The basis of political parties were the federalist and anti federalist because it was the first national public decision What is a Political Party? - A political party is a group of political activist who organize to win elections, operate the government, and determine public policy - Political parties differ from interest groups because interest groups: • do not want to operate government • do not put forth political candidates • tend to sharpen issues, while PP’s tend to blue their issue positions to attract voters - Functions of PP: • recruit candidates for public office • organize and run elections • present alternative policies to voters accept responsibilities for operating government • • act as organized opposition to party in power The Era’s of Political Parties - The formative years: 1789- 1828 • Washington was the first president and was a federalist • then it was a transfer from federalist to the jeffersonian party - Era of good feelings: 1816- 1828 • federalist party had disappeared and everyone was united under the Jefferson republic - National Two Party Rule: 1828- 1860 3 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 • the Jefferson republic split into that and the democratic party which is the same one we have today. It is the longest standing political party in the western world • any third party that disappeared usually was adopted into the democratic party - Post- Civil War Period: 1860-1896 • a period of republican rule at the national level. There was differences in the states, specifically the south, but at the national level was republican. - The progressive movement: 1896- 1932 Good government policies were passed and civic issues were brought into light to • be fixed, largely dominated by republican party - The New Deal Period: 1932- 1968 • FDR was the starting point for this era due to him expanding the role of the national government in the economy of the nation (Big government actions) • Democratic party starts to reach out to minorities and disadvantaged people who were heavily effected by the Great depression. This is why the party won the next 4 elections - The Modern Era/ The Divided Era: 1968- Present at the national level the nation started seeing the civil rights acts which were • strongly advocated by the democratic party. BUT this is where many party members decided that the party was moving away from their ideals and as social issues because more important southern with protestants decided to leave the party. This era is characterized by: - Divided Government: a situation in which one major political party controls the presidency and the other controls at least one chamber of congress The Parties beliefs: Economically - Democrats: are associated with the improving of the enviromnemt, education, energy problems, and health care - Republican: are associated with a strong defense and dealing with terrorism, lower taxes, and dealing with the budget deficient 4 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 The Parties beliefs: Culturally - Republicans are more likely to support traditional family values ad want to oppose polices such as legalized abortion, relaxation of drug laws, same sex marriage, etc. How a Party Functions - Subunits of a Party: 1. Party in Electorate: the members in the general public who identify with a political party or express a preference for one party over another 2. Party Organization: the formal structure and leadership of the party, including the election committees, local, state, and national executives and paid professional staff 3. Party in Government: all of the elected and appointed officials who are identified with a political party - Party Organization • National Party Organization: - National Chairperson - National Committee: consist of around 400 people, representing every state - National Convention and Delegates: held every 4 years, develop the party platform (issues that are important), responsible for nominating the President and VP • State Party Organization: - State Chairperson - State Central Committee: composed of elected officials, or prominent people from all counties. • Due to the loose relationships of the two parties, most of the power lies with the state level since its easier to target and reach more people directly since its a smaller population • Unit Rule: says that in presidential elections, the candidate who gets the most votes in a state gets all the states electoral votes • Local Party Organization: 5 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 - this is where the most people get involved and help recruit members and candidates, volunteer as campaign workers, and work as poll workers • used to have power when parties were able to get away with more, and also over the last 30 years the campaigns have become more about the candidate and less about the political parties Party in the Electorate: Differences - Democrats • are generally considered more liberal • have generally appealed to move disadvantaged groups in society • african americans are more likely to identify • Union members Jewish and Catholics • • people with less education - Republicans • generally more conservative • suburban and rural areas • business and professional occupations • higher incomes • fundamentalist or evangelical christians Why has the Political Parties lasted? - historical foundations of the system - political socialization and practical consideration - political culture - the winner-take-all electoral system - state and federal laws favoring the two party system 6 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 Third Party a political party • - Development: • they are founded from scratch by individuals who are committed to a particular interest, issue, or ideology. (Ideological Third Parties) split off from on the major parties (Splinter Party) • • organized around a particular charismatic leader - Impact: • raise issues for the two parties to adjust to • affect the outcome of an election Mechanisms of Political Change - realignment: major constituencies shift their allegiance from one party to another - dealignment: a decline in party loyalties that reduces long term party commitment 7


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