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BSC 108 Week 6-7 notes

by: Matt Cutler

BSC 108 Week 6-7 notes BIO 108

Matt Cutler
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
Intro to Biology for Non-Majors
Dr. Yates
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt Cutler on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology for Non-Majors in biology, science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chapter 6- Cellular Respiration Monday, September 19, 2016 10:34 AM 1. Energy flow and chemical cycling in the biosphere a. Producers and Consumers i. Plants and other autotrophs (self-feeders) □ Make their own organic matter from inorganic nutrients □ Producers because ecosystems depend upon them for food ii. Heterotrophs (other-feeders) □ Include humans and other animals that cannot make organic molecules from inorganic ones. □ Consumers because they eat plants or other animals b. The metabolic pathway of Cellular Respiration i. Glucose + (6)Oxygen ---> (6)Carbon Dioxide + (6)Water + ATP c. The overall equation for Photosynthesis i. (6)Carbon Dioxide + (6)Water ---> Glucose + (6)Oxygen d. Chemical cycling between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration  The ingredients for photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water □ C02 is obtained from the air by a plant's leaves by entering the Stomata □ H20 is obtained from the damp soil by a plant's roots  Chloroplasts in the cells of leaves  Use Light energy to rearrange the atoms of C02 and H20 which produces □ Sugars (Such as glucose) □ Other organic molecules □ Oxygen i. Aerobic metabolism 1) Occurs when enough oxygen reaches cells to support their energy needs ii. Anaerobic metabolism 1) Occurs when the demand for oxygen is greater than the body's ability to deliver it iii. Cellular respiration and breathing 1) Cellular respiration and breathing are closely related a) CR requires a cell to exchange gases with its surroundings b) Breathing exchanges these gases between the blood and outside air 2. Stage 1: Glycolysis a. A six-carbon glucose molecule is split in half to form two molecules or pyruvic acid b. These two molecules then donate high energy electrons to NAD+, forming NADH c. Uses two ATP molecules per glucose to split the six carbon glucose i. Makes four additional ATP directly when enzymes transfer phosphate groups from fuel molecules to ADP d. Thus, glycolysis produces a net of two molecules of ATP per glucose molecule 3. Stage 2: The Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) • Pyruvate must be moved from the cytoplasm a. Extracts the energy of sugar by breaking the acetic acid molecules all the way down to C02 into the mitochondria for aerobic respiration b. Uses some of this energy to make ATP or "prepped" c. Forms NADH and FADH2 4. Stage 3: Electron Transport a. Electrons transport releases the energy your cells need to make the most of their ATP b. The molecules of electron transport chains are built into the inner membranes of mitochondria (Christae- inner foldings) i. The chain functions as a chemical machine that uses energy released by the "fall" of electrons to pump hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane ii. These ions sore potential energy iii. This is where the O2 you breathe is used 5. The Versatility of Cellular Respiration -Cellular respiration can "burn" other kinds of molecules besides glucose -Diverse types of carbohydrates -Fats -Proteins -Aerobic respiration results in about 38 ATP molecules. -Anaerobic respiration goes only through glycolysis generating 2 ATP molecules -Fermentation: Anaerobic Harvest of Food Energy -Some of your cells can actually work for short periods without oxygen -For example, muscle cells can produce ATP under anaerobic conditions -Fermentation -The anaerobic harvest of food energy BSC 108 Page 1 -The anaerobic harvest of food energy -Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that provides ATP during fermentation -In human muscle cells, lactic acid is a by-product -Felling the "burn" -When you exercise -Muscles need energy in order to perform work -Your cells use oxygen to release energy from the sugar glucose -Anaerobic metabolism -Without enough oxygen, muscle cells break down glucose to produce lactic acid -Lactic acid is associated with the "burn" you feel after heavy exercise -If too much lactic acid builds up, your muscles give out -Fermentation in Microorganisms -Fermentation alone is able to sustain many types of microorganisms -The lactic acid produced by microbes using fermentation is used to produce: -Cheese, sour cream, and yogurt dairy products -Soy sauce, pickles, olives -Sausage meat products -Yeast are a type of microscopic fungus that: -Use a different type of fermentation -Produce CO2 and ethyl alcohol instead of lactic acid -This type of fermentation, called alcoholic fermentation, is used to produce: -Beer -Wine -Breads BSC 108 Page 2 Chapter 7- Photosynthesis Monday, September 26, 2016 10:15 AM 1. A PhotosynthesisRoad Map a. Photosynthesisis a two-step process i. The light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy ii. The Calvin cycle make sugar from carbon dioxide -In photosynthesis -Energized electrons are added to carbon dioxide to make sugar -Sunlight provides the energy b. The Light reactions: converting solar energy to chemical energy -Sunlight is a type of energy called radiation,or electromagnetic energy -The full range of radiation is called the electro-magneticspectrum -Chloroplastsabsorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy  Chloroplast Pigments □ Chloroplasts contain several pigments  Chlorophyll a  Chlorophyll b  Carotenoids c. How Photosystems harvest light energy  Light behaves as photons- discrete packets of energy  Chlorophyll molecules absorb photons □ Electrons in the pigment gain energy □ As the electrons fall back to their ground state, energy is released as heat or light ○ A photosystem is a group of chlorophyll and other molecules that function as a light -gatheringantenna. d. How the light reactions generate ATP and NADPH  Two Types of photosystems cooperate in the light reactions: □ The water-splittingphotosystem □ The NADPH-producingphotosystem  An Electron transport chain: □ Connects the two photosystems □ Releases energy that the chloroplast uses to make ATP e. The Calvin Cycle: Making sugar from Carbon Dioxide i. Functions like a sugar factory within a chloroplast ii. Regenerates the starting material with each turn iii. The G3P sugar makes the Calvin cycle turn, and makes RuBP (rubisco) f. Water-Saving Adaptationsof C4 and CAM plants i. C3 plants 1) Use CO2 directly from the air 2) Are very common and widely distributed ii. C4 plants 1) Close their stromata to save water during hot and dry weather can still carry out photosynthesis iii. CAM plants 1) Open their stomata only at night to conserve water 1) Open their stomata only at night to conserve water ○ Photosynthesishas an enormous impact on the atmosphere  It swaps O2 for CO2 g. How Photosynthesismoderates the Greenhouse effect i. Old-growth forests □ Are imported for lumber □ Are important for moderatingworld climates ii. The Greenhouse effect 1) Warms the atmosphere 2) Is caused by atmospheric CO2 3) Greenhouse gases are the most likely cause of global warming, a slow but steady rise in the Earth's surface temperature a) Destruction of forests may be increasing this effect. 2. Cell Reproduction a. May result in the birth of a new organism b. More commonly involves the production of new cells c. When a cell undergoes reproduction, or cell division, two 'daughter cells' are produced that are genetically identical to each other and to the "parent" cell. d. Before a parent cell splits into two, it duplicates its chromosomes, the structures that contain most of the organism's DNA e. During cell division, each daughter cell receives one set of chromosomes f. Cell division plays important roles in the lives of organisms i. Cell division replaces damaged or lost cells ii. Permits growth iii. Allows for reproduction g. In Asexual Reproduction (Mitosis) i. Single-celled organisms reproduce by simple cell division ii. There is no fertilizationof an egg by a sperm ○ Some multicellular organisms, such as sea stars, can grow new individuals from fragmented pieces ○ Growing a new plant from a clipping is another example of asexual reproduction ○ In asexual reproduction, the lone parent and its offspring have identical genes ○ Mitosis is the type of cell division responsible for:  Asexual reproduction  Growth and maintenance of multicellular organisms h. Sexual Reproduction requires fertilizationof an egg by a sperm using a special type of cell division called meiosis i. Thus, sexually reproducingorganisms use: 1) Meiosis for reproduction 2) Mitosis for growth and maintenance ○ The number of chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell depends on the species. (Humans have 46 chromosomes) ○ Human Somatic cells have 46 chromosomes  All cells except reproductivecells  Two sets of 23, one from each parent ○ Human reproductivecells (Sperm and egg cells) have 23 chromosomes i. Before a cell divides, it duplicates all of its chromosomes, resultingin two copies called sister chromatids i. Joined together at a narrow waist called the centromere ii. The two resulting "daughter" cells are genetically identical because each ii. The two resulting "daughter"cells are genetically identical because each receives a copy of every chromosome ○ Mistakes in cell replication are the basis of cancer, genetic diseases, and evolution. ○ One chromosome can have one arm, or it can have 2 sister chromatid arms. ○ It is still considered 1 chromosome until the chromatids separate. 3. The Cell Cycle a. Eukaryotic cells that divide undergo an orderly sequence of events called the cell cycle b. Two distinct phases i. Interphase □ Most of the cell cycle is spent in interphase □ Performs its normal functions □ Doubles everything in its cytoplasm □ Grows in size ii. Mitotic phase


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