New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Drugs & Individual Behavior Class Notes - Week 6

by: McKenna Keck

Drugs & Individual Behavior Class Notes - Week 6 PSYCH 3102

Marketplace > University of Northern Iowa > Psychology > PSYCH 3102 > Drugs Individual Behavior Class Notes Week 6
McKenna Keck
GPA 3.71

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what we've gone over in class this week, including finishing up alcohol, and beginning discussion on the amphetamines.
Drugs and Individual Behavior
Dr. Linda Walsh
Class Notes
Drugs, individual, behavior, alcohol, amphetamines
25 ?




Popular in Drugs and Individual Behavior

Popular in Psychology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenna Keck on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3102 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Linda Walsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Individual Behavior in Psychology at University of Northern Iowa.

Similar to PSYCH 3102 at UNI


Reviews for Drugs & Individual Behavior Class Notes - Week 6


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/29/16
Drugs & Individual Behavior Week 6 Tuesday September 27, 2016 Continued discussion on alcohol… Watched videos about effects of alcohol on the body, specifically on  driving. ○ Loss of Judgment & Self Control ■ Cognitive inhibition & disinhibition of behavioral/emotional  control is a dangerous combo ■ Alcohol is involved in: ● 50% of police arrests ● 50­60% of murders ● 40% males committing sexual assault ● 60­70% males committing domestic abuse ● 60% of child molestation & abuse ● 35% of suicides ○ Metabolism ■ In males, about 15% of alcohol can be metabolized in stomach  before it’s even absorbed; women may have half as much metabolized here. ● There are other things besides gender that play a  role, for example, ethnicity can. ■ The rest is metabolized in liver ­ about 1 standard drink/hr by a  healthy liver ● Alcohol dehydrogenase (enzyme in liver) converts  alcohol into acetaldehyde, a rather nasty byproduct (toxic substance that our liver  must also metabolize. Contributes to hangover symptoms). ■ Aldehyde dehydrogenase breaks down acetaldehyde into acetic  acid ■ Acetic acid is oxidized into oxygen, carbon dioxide, & calories ■ Why Do We Experience Hangovers? ● Mini­withdrawal from alcohol (rebound  hyperexcitability) ○ Like the shakes, being easily  overwhelmed by light, etc). ● Toxic reaction to congeners (a slew of different  chemicals that are a byproduct of the way the alcoholic beverage was produced.  For the most part, they’re naturally occurring, but they could be synthetic) ○ Other alcohols, oils, & organic  substances added or formed during the production of an alcoholic  beverage ○ Congeners give these beverages their distinctive color, odor & taste ○ Congeners are 1 of the factors  influencing hangover ○ Highest in congeners: bourbon,  scotch, brandy, tequila, red wine, dark beers. Lowest: vodka, gin, white  wine. ● Toxic reaction to alcohol & its byproduct  acetaldehyde ● Fatigue, dehydration, hypoglycemia, loss of  vitamins, etc. due to partying ■ Nearly 31,000 Americans die each year from the adverse effects of alcohol on their health. Almost half of these deaths due to cirrhosis of liver. ○ Health Risks of Chronic Heavy Drinking ■ Nervous system dysfunction & brain damage affecting memory,  motor function; alcoholic dementia ■ Fatty liver; alcoholic hepatitis; cirrhosis ■ Impaired reproductive functioning (alcoholic impotence,  suppression of ovulation, etc.) ■ Gastritis pancreatitis ■ Co­Carcinogen increasing risk of oral, throat, stomach, intestinal,  liver & possibly breast cancers. Increases cancer risks of smoking. ■ Impaired immune function. ■ Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders ● 2,600,000 alcohol­exposed US babies/year! ● May be subtle or severe depending on degree &  timing of exposure ● 3rd most common cause of birth defects, retardation & learning disabilities (and the most preventable) ● Seen in 30­50% babies born to alcoholic mothers,  but symptoms may also be seen w/ as little as 2 drinks twice a week. ● Binge drinking particularly damaging ● Partial symptoms = FAE or ARND ○ Babies are usually smaller than usual (less than 5lb) ○ Smaller heads, smaller brains ○ The brains are typically very  abnormally developed ○ Nervous system affected ○ Sometimes facial structure  changed… still cute, but very consistent ■ Alcohol Poisoning/Overdose ● Symptoms: ○ Stuporous or unconscious; can’t be  roused ○ Cool or damp skin; pale or bluish  skin ○ Shallow slow or irregular breathing  <8/min ○ Vomiting while unconscious ○ Weak rapid pulse ● Can be fatal or cause brain damage ­ call 911 ● 30,000 college students/yr treated for alcohol  overdose ­ untreated, many die ● On average 6 deaths/day in US due to alcohol  poisoning ■ You don’t have to “look” like an alcoholic to be at risk for these  health consequences. Men who drink 15 or more drinks a week , & women who drink 8  or more drinks a week are susceptible. ○ Alcohol Withdrawal ■ Without the depressant you are overstimulated by the  “hyperexcitability rebound” ● Tremors ● Agitation, anxiety ● Insomnia ­ if you do sleep, vivid nightmares ● Sweating, nausea, vomiting ● Increased HR & BP ● Alcoholic hallucinosis ● Grand mal seizures in about 10%, usually 12­48 hrs  after last drink but may be sooner if susceptible ● For some, these early symptoms worsen ■ Pharmacological Aids to the Treatment of Alcohol Abuse ● During Detox: ○ Use of another depressant (a benzo  like Librium, Ativan, or Valium or another anticonvulsant) to gradually  withdraw individual & to try to avoid seizures (gradual is easier than cold  turkey) ● After Detox ○ Anti­Relapse: ■ Alcohol­Sensitizer ­  Antabuse (disulfiram) (Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde,  but not into acetate) ■ Various anti­cravings  Drugs ● Narcoti c antagonists: Revia (naltrexone) blocks opiate receptors,  so if you did drink, you wouldn’t get the pleasurable effects due to the release of endorphins ­ both oral & extended  release injection available ● Campr al (acamprosate) helps restore GABA balance & blocks  glutamate ● Antide pressants (most of the SSRIs) ­ antidepressant, anti­anxiety  effects ● Antico nvulsant mood stabilizers (topiramate, valproate,  gabapentin) are looking promising ○ These should be combined w/  meetings and/or psych interventions Thursday, September 29, 2016 Stimulants ● Stimulants: Drugs which stimulate brain, body, & behavior ○ BUT: Don’t all act by a common chemical mechanism. NOT a pharmacological  family like depressants. ● Psychostimulants or Monoamine Stimulants or Controlled Stimulants ○ These on the Schedule of Controlled Substances ○ Amphetamines ■ History ● Developed as a synthetic substitute for ephedrine  (1927) ● Was sold as OTC asthma inhaler Benzedrine ● Pep pills used world­wide during WWII; still used  by armed forces today ● Became a prescription drug in 1965 because of  growing abuse, then a “Controlled Substance” in 1971; new wave of meth  popularity began in 1990s ■ Basic Amphetamines ● Molecules come in right (dextro or d) & left (levo  or l) ­ handed varieties or isomers ○ Right handed one fits our brain better ● Benzedrine was a mix (d, l amphetamine) (5­50  mg); today’s Adderal is also such a mix ● Dexedrine is d­amphetamine & is more potent (2­20 mg) ● Methamphetamine crosses BBB even better ○ Adding the methyl causes it to cross  the blood brain barrier even faster. ● “Freebased” dextromethamphetamine (ice or  crystal) is smokeable crystals like crack, but much longer acting. ■ Amphetamine’s Action ● Amphetamines make DA & NE more available at  synapses by triggering their release & decreasing reuptake. ■ Medical Uses for Amphetamine & Amphetamine­Like Drugs ● Treatment of ADHD & its variations, including in  adults ○ The stimulant causes in increase in  cortical activation, which allows the individual to better use their frontal  lobe to control their behavior.] ○ Improve behavior in 70­80% of  those correctly diagnosed; one of the most well­documented  pharmacotherapies ­ more effective than intensive behavioral therapy, but  not a “cure” ■ First Generation  Drugs ● Ritalin  ­ methylphenidate (half­life 2­4 hrs) ○ T echnically not an amphetamine, but very similar. ● Addera l ­ a mix of d & l amphetamine salts ● Dexedr ine ­ d­amphetamine ● Must  be taken more than once a day for sustained effect. Kids  had to take a 2nd dose at school. ■ New Long­Acting  Varieties With a Variety of Time­Course Profiles ● Long  list, we don’t need to know. ● Started with pill, a transdermal patch, & a liquid form. ○ ADHD Treatment Risks ■ Stomach ache,  headache, jitters, dizziness, especially at first ■ Appetite­suppression; delayed sleep onset ■ Growth reduction  possible; motor tics in 1% ■ Rare heart attacks,  strokes, sudden death in some ■ Kids may not receive  adequate assessment & follow­up, but data suggest under­ prescription more common than over­prescription ■ Non­amphetamine  alternative treatments. Thought to be safer, but data suggests they  aren’t as effective. ● Stratter a (atomoxetine) ● Antide pressants (less effective than stimulants) ● Etc.  ● Treatment of Narcolepsy, Shift­Work Sleep  Disorder, Daytime Sleepiness of Sleep Apnea ○ Amphetamines have been used to  maintain wakefulness ○ Newer non­amphetamine  psychostimulant available: ■ Provigil… Doesn’t  seem to have the same risk of being abused ■ Nuvigil ­ just the  “right­handed” form of modafinil rather than a mix of R & L ● Controversial Use ○ Short­term adjunct to weight­loss  programs ­ multiple drawbacks means it should only be considered for  obese facing serious health risks. ■ Health risks,  tolerance, potential dependence & rebound weight gain limit  usefulness ○ Prescription amphetamine­like  appetite suppressants (they keep getting removed from the market because of health risks) *Some lines of notes copied directly from slides in order to maintain testing accuracy. Most is of the lecture &  discussion, not found on slides.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.