Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes CJ 270
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michela Spicer on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 270 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Patrick Halliday in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Corrections in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Objectives 1. Understand how jail populations are different from prison populations There are 3,283 locally operated jails in the United States. Besides incarcerating people who have sentences of a year or less, jails serve a number of purposes. They hold people awaiting trial, probation and parole violators, adults and juveniles awaiting transfer, and prison inmates about to be released. Sometimes they operate community-based programs. The jail population is different from the prison population in terms of total admissions and average daily population. 2. List the purposes of jails The daily population of jails is lower than that of prisons, but the annual total of people incarcerated in jails is higher 3. Trace briefly the development of jails in history Jails emerged in Europe in the 12 century to detain th th offenders for trial. In the 15 and 16 centuries, the poor and unemployed were detained alongside criminals. The first jail in America was the Walnut Street Jail. Quakers designed it according to their principles of religious reflection and penance. It fell short of reaching its goals and closed in 1835. 4. Explain how first, second, and third-generation jails differ in design and method of inmate management American jails have progressed through three phases of architecture and inmate management: first-generation jails (linear design and sporadic supervision), second- generation jails (pod design and remote supervision), and third-generation jails (pod design and direct supervision). 5. Outline the characteristics of jail inmates, facilities, and staff By mid-2011, jails held or supervised 808,622 offenders. An estimated 39% of jail inmates are convicted offenders. Women represent 13.2% of the jail population; nonwhites, 54.2%; and juveniles, 0.7%. Almost 2/3 of all jail inmates have a mental health problem., and there are more people with mental illness in jail than there are in mental health hospitals. Jail suicide is almost 4 times what it is for the general US population, jail homicides are up, and 3.1% of all jail inmates experienced one or more incidents of sexual victimization involving another inmate or staff. By mid- 2012, 84% of jail capacity was occupied. 37 jails are privatized. The most (8) are in Texas. Approximately 234,000 people work in jails. The increase in the jail population is outpacing the growth in jail staff. The problems of jail staff include low pay and prestige, high turnover, and inadequate systems for recruitment, selection, and training. 6. Outline the arguments for and against privatization Advocates of privatization claim they can build and operate jails more efficiently than can government. Opponents argue they cannot, or they dismiss the cost issues altogether. For them, operating a jail is a basic function of government and a symbol of state authority and should not be delegated. 7. Describe how jail vocational and educational programs affect inmate reentry Jail vocational and educational programs are important avenues for managing inmates, reducing recidivism, and successful reentry. They keep inmates occupied, boost self- esteem, and help inmates find jobs after release. 8. Discuss how faith-based organizations and a jail chaplain can influence jail inmates and help jail staff Jails are partnering with faith-based organizations to meet the needs of jail inmates. Jail chaplaincy can influence jail inmates in five ways. First, chaplains can help inmates with the inner conversion needed to break the cycle of crime. Second, a jail chaplain can help staff deal with day-to-day problems. Third, a jail chaplain can mediate and moderate tensions and conflicts between inmates and staff. Fourth, jail chaplaincy can involve the public as jail volunteers and remind people that inmates exist. And fifth, chaplains can help inmates confront the truth about themselves. 9. Discuss why jail standards, inspection, and accreditation are important Jail standards, inspection, and accreditation are important for five reasons. First, inspection and accreditation indicate that a jail adheres to strict standards. Second, accreditation may help a jail defend itself against lawsuits over conditions of incarceration. Third, through inspection and accreditation, the sheriff’s office may evaluate all jail operations, procedures, and policies, leading to better management practices. Fourth, accreditation generates professional recognition and status, grater appreciation by the community, and a sense of pride. And fifth, the ACA in conjunction with the American Jail Association, National Sheriff’s Association, National Institute of Corrections, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons now has a set of core jail standards to establish minimum practices for small- and medium-size facilities. This new option makes certification easier for small- and medium-size jails. 10. Discuss what is known about using evidence-based practices to treat substance abuse in jail The National Institute on Drug Abuse recommends 13 key evidence-based practices to treat substance abuse. Jails implement an average of only 1.6. Four evidence-based practices are used in more than ½ of all jails. However, jails have not conducted scientific evaluations to show the impact the practices have on reduced criminal activity. 11. Explain California’s realignment act California’s realignment act is the shift of responsibility for adult offenders and parolees from the state to the counties. The new law mandates that individuals sentenced for non-serious, nonviolent, or non-sex offenses will serve their sentences in county jails instead of state prison and will be supervised by county probation departments rather than state parole officers. Key Terms Bail: a written obligation with or without collateral security, given to a court to guarantee appearance before the court Jails: locally operated correctional facilities that confine people before or after conviction Total admission: the total number of people admitted to jail each year Average daily population (ADP): sum of the number of inmates in a jail or prison each day for a year, divided by the total number of days in the year First-generation jail: jail with multiple-occupancy cells or dormitories that line corridors arranged like spokes. Inmate supervision is intermittent; staff must patrol the corridors to observe inmates in their cells Second-generation jail: jail where staff remain in a secure control booth surrounded by inmate housing areas called pods and surveillance is remote Third-generation jail (also direct-supervision jail): a jail where inmates are housed in small groups, or pods, staffed 24 hours a day by specifically trained officers. Officers interact with inmates to help change behavior. Bars and metal doors are absent, reducing noise and dehumanization Rated capacity: the maximum number of beds allocated to each jail facility by a state or local rating official Pay-to-stay jail (also self-pay jails): an alternative to serving time in a county jail. Offenders convicted of minor offenses are offered privileges for a fee from $75 to $127 per day Privatization: a contract process that shifts public functions, responsibilities, and capital assets, in whole or in part, from the public sector to the private sector Reentry: the transition offenders make from prison or jail to the community Jail accreditation: process through which correctional facilities and agencies can measure themselves against nationally adopted standards and through which they can receive formal recognition and accredited status Design capacity: the number of inmates that planners or architects intend for the facility
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