New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 6 Notes

by: Michela Spicer

Chapter 6 Notes CJ 270

Michela Spicer

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover all of the objectives and key terms for chapter 6.
Introduction to Corrections
Patrick Halliday
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Corrections

Popular in Criminal Justice

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michela Spicer on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 270 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Patrick Halliday in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Corrections in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

Similar to CJ 270 at UA

Popular in Criminal Justice


Reviews for Chapter 6 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/29/16
Objectives 1. Understand how jail populations are different from prison populations  There are 3,283 locally operated jails in the United States. Besides incarcerating people who have sentences of a year or less, jails serve a number of purposes. They hold people awaiting trial, probation and parole violators, adults and juveniles awaiting transfer, and prison inmates about to be released. Sometimes they operate community-based programs. The jail population is different from the prison population in terms of total admissions and average daily population. 2. List the purposes of jails  The daily population of jails is lower than that of prisons, but the annual total of people incarcerated in jails is higher 3. Trace briefly the development of jails in history  Jails emerged in Europe in the 12 century to detain th th offenders for trial. In the 15 and 16 centuries, the poor and unemployed were detained alongside criminals. The first jail in America was the Walnut Street Jail. Quakers designed it according to their principles of religious reflection and penance. It fell short of reaching its goals and closed in 1835. 4. Explain how first, second, and third-generation jails differ in design and method of inmate management  American jails have progressed through three phases of architecture and inmate management: first-generation jails (linear design and sporadic supervision), second- generation jails (pod design and remote supervision), and third-generation jails (pod design and direct supervision). 5. Outline the characteristics of jail inmates, facilities, and staff  By mid-2011, jails held or supervised 808,622 offenders. An estimated 39% of jail inmates are convicted offenders. Women represent 13.2% of the jail population; nonwhites, 54.2%; and juveniles, 0.7%. Almost 2/3 of all jail inmates have a mental health problem., and there are more people with mental illness in jail than there are in mental health hospitals. Jail suicide is almost 4 times what it is for the general US population, jail homicides are up, and 3.1% of all jail inmates experienced one or more incidents of sexual victimization involving another inmate or staff. By mid- 2012, 84% of jail capacity was occupied. 37 jails are privatized. The most (8) are in Texas. Approximately 234,000 people work in jails. The increase in the jail population is outpacing the growth in jail staff. The problems of jail staff include low pay and prestige, high turnover, and inadequate systems for recruitment, selection, and training. 6. Outline the arguments for and against privatization  Advocates of privatization claim they can build and operate jails more efficiently than can government. Opponents argue they cannot, or they dismiss the cost issues altogether. For them, operating a jail is a basic function of government and a symbol of state authority and should not be delegated. 7. Describe how jail vocational and educational programs affect inmate reentry  Jail vocational and educational programs are important avenues for managing inmates, reducing recidivism, and successful reentry. They keep inmates occupied, boost self- esteem, and help inmates find jobs after release. 8. Discuss how faith-based organizations and a jail chaplain can influence jail inmates and help jail staff  Jails are partnering with faith-based organizations to meet the needs of jail inmates. Jail chaplaincy can influence jail inmates in five ways. First, chaplains can help inmates with the inner conversion needed to break the cycle of crime. Second, a jail chaplain can help staff deal with day-to-day problems. Third, a jail chaplain can mediate and moderate tensions and conflicts between inmates and staff. Fourth, jail chaplaincy can involve the public as jail volunteers and remind people that inmates exist. And fifth, chaplains can help inmates confront the truth about themselves. 9. Discuss why jail standards, inspection, and accreditation are important  Jail standards, inspection, and accreditation are important for five reasons. First, inspection and accreditation indicate that a jail adheres to strict standards. Second, accreditation may help a jail defend itself against lawsuits over conditions of incarceration. Third, through inspection and accreditation, the sheriff’s office may evaluate all jail operations, procedures, and policies, leading to better management practices. Fourth, accreditation generates professional recognition and status, grater appreciation by the community, and a sense of pride. And fifth, the ACA in conjunction with the American Jail Association, National Sheriff’s Association, National Institute of Corrections, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons now has a set of core jail standards to establish minimum practices for small- and medium-size facilities. This new option makes certification easier for small- and medium-size jails. 10. Discuss what is known about using evidence-based practices to treat substance abuse in jail  The National Institute on Drug Abuse recommends 13 key evidence-based practices to treat substance abuse. Jails implement an average of only 1.6. Four evidence-based practices are used in more than ½ of all jails. However, jails have not conducted scientific evaluations to show the impact the practices have on reduced criminal activity. 11. Explain California’s realignment act  California’s realignment act is the shift of responsibility for adult offenders and parolees from the state to the counties. The new law mandates that individuals sentenced for non-serious, nonviolent, or non-sex offenses will serve their sentences in county jails instead of state prison and will be supervised by county probation departments rather than state parole officers. Key Terms  Bail: a written obligation with or without collateral security, given to a court to guarantee appearance before the court  Jails: locally operated correctional facilities that confine people before or after conviction  Total admission: the total number of people admitted to jail each year  Average daily population (ADP): sum of the number of inmates in a jail or prison each day for a year, divided by the total number of days in the year  First-generation jail: jail with multiple-occupancy cells or dormitories that line corridors arranged like spokes. Inmate supervision is intermittent; staff must patrol the corridors to observe inmates in their cells  Second-generation jail: jail where staff remain in a secure control booth surrounded by inmate housing areas called pods and surveillance is remote  Third-generation jail (also direct-supervision jail): a jail where inmates are housed in small groups, or pods, staffed 24 hours a day by specifically trained officers. Officers interact with inmates to help change behavior. Bars and metal doors are absent, reducing noise and dehumanization  Rated capacity: the maximum number of beds allocated to each jail facility by a state or local rating official  Pay-to-stay jail (also self-pay jails): an alternative to serving time in a county jail. Offenders convicted of minor offenses are offered privileges for a fee from $75 to $127 per day  Privatization: a contract process that shifts public functions, responsibilities, and capital assets, in whole or in part, from the public sector to the private sector  Reentry: the transition offenders make from prison or jail to the community  Jail accreditation: process through which correctional facilities and agencies can measure themselves against nationally adopted standards and through which they can receive formal recognition and accredited status  Design capacity: the number of inmates that planners or architects intend for the facility


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.