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HIST 3220 Notes

by: Lena Theodore

HIST 3220 Notes HIST 3220

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These documents contain notes from all class sessions - from the beginning of the semester all the way up until class on September 29th.
The United States in the 1960s
Dr. Pach
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Date Created: 09/29/16
HIST 3220: Introduction 8/23/16 Percy Faith, “Theme from a Summer Place” – reached #1 in 1960 The Archies, “Sugar, Sugar” – reached #1 in 1969 Points to be covered this semester: - Liberalism & conservatism - Change of political alignments - Efforts to create new communities - Cold War & its effects - Social & cultural issues - The “new left” - Music HIST 3220: The Great Debates and the Election of 1960 8/25/16 Chubby Checker, “The Twist” – biggest dance craze of early 60s, #1 hit in 1960 Chubby Checker, “Let’s Twist Again” – hit in 1962, growing bigger than first twist song Nixon & Kennedy – closest election in history (in regards to popular vote) - Many similarities between two; differed in rate of movement, speed, etc. Richard M. Nixon - Vice President for 8 years, having served in Eisenhower administration, which allowed him to easily snag the GOP nomination - Brought “youth” to the table (in comparison to Eisenhower at 70 yrs. old) - Also from California, which equaled to a large number of votes House Un-American Activities Committee – investigates threats to national security Alger Hiss – accused of passing secrets to the Soviet Union, later convicted of perjury 1952: Nixon’s accused of stealing government funds (corruption) - Checker’s Speech, Sept. 1952 – Nixon addressed the people on live TV about the scandal o Saved Nixon from Eisenhower dropping him as VP – still elected in 1952 *Eisenhower had never really liked Nixon, even after receiving the VP nomination Nikita Khrushchev – leader of the Soviet Union “people’s capitalism” – benefits to people; improved the standard of living (for all Americans) Which social and economic system served the people better? - The biggest question between Khrushchev’s and Nixon’s public meet exhibition Nixon emphasized experience and growth, which was somewhat contradictory - Claimed good relations w/ Khrushchev - Claimed to give much assistance to Eisenhower o Eisenhower on Nixon (when asked about things Nixon has done): “If you give me a week, I might think of one. I don’t remember.” U-2 incident – the Soviets shot down this special plane that Americans claimed couldn’t be In the last year of the Eisenhower administration, the Cold War intensified Sputnik, 1957: Soviets became the first to put a satellite in space - Brought fear and anxiety in U.S. o Idea that we’re weaker than the Soviets after claims that we’re ahead of them Nixon & Henry Cabot Lodge – secured the GOP nomination in 1960 John F. Kennedy - Elected to Senate 1952, strong anti-Communist - Strong liberal on social issues, had little interest in economics o Strongest proponent against and largest concern w/ Cold War – made it relevant - Capitalized on a personal angle/image – favorable by the people Kennedy’s VP run in 1956 – good for political recognition JFK’s slogan: “It’s time to get the country moving again.” - Falling behind, shouldn’t be content, gotta be dynamic (main points) 1960 campaigning: developed style well-suited for TV – huge plus - Was being Roman Catholic good or bad? o More bad than good, but his public address on this issue on live TV helped To secure the Democratic ticket… - Kennedy chose Lyndon Johnson as his running mate for the sole purpose of helping to carry the state of Texas (where Johnson was from) in the election The Great Debates (beginning Sept. 1960) - JFK suggested these debates w/ intent to prove himself as equal to Nixon - Nixon’s agreement to participate went against Eisenhower’s urging not to - Kennedy was prepared, Nixon was not and ran into problems (ex: falling ill) September 26, 1960: 1 televised debate, making it the largest TV audience ever - Kennedy won, Nixon lost – why? o Factors: body language, demeanor, confidence, presence, etc. Martin Luther King Sr. – initially did not support JFK for being Catholic, which resonated w/ other African Americans in community - Martin Luther King Jr.’s arrest, followed by JFK’s sympathetic phone call afterwards, changed everything o Major gamble for JFK on such a close election  Wanted African American support, but didn’t want to lose white support November 8, 1960: became the closest election ever w/ results still not yet official the following morning on the Today Show - There was evidence of voter fraud in Illinois, specifically Chicago o Nixon didn’t want to contest – JFK still would have won even w/out IL  Kennedy had both the majority/popular vote and the electoral vote Conclusions: - Debates hugely factored in to the successes & failures of each candidate - The recession blamed on the Eisenhower administration lashed back onto Nixon - Kennedy held a major concern for the Cold War - TV called for image – simply, JFK had it and Nixon did not HIST 3220: Kennedy and the Cold War 8/30/16 The Dovells, “The Bristol Stomp” – top 10 hit in 1961 The Orlons, “Wah Watusi” – biggest hit (for them); released 1962 JFK claimed “a supreme national effort” was necessary to protect the U.S. - In reference to the Cold War, the biggest problem/concern Inauguration Day, 1961: “ask not what your country can do for you…” - “the torch has passed to another generation…” - “pay any price, bear any burden” – believed Americans should make national interests into personal ones, wanting the U.S. involved Peace Corps – alternative to military; expresses American idealism in making sacrifices and offering help to those who need it - Conserve both purposes of idealistic and practical advantages in the Cold War New Year’s Day, 1959: Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba Fidel Castro – not a Communist (initially), but definitely anti-U.S. making claims that U.S. exploited the economy for personal growth - Soon after, he joined up w/ the Soviet Union - Eisenhower on Castro: “he’s a mad man” – his way of saying he can’t be worked with o Enlisted the CIA to kill him off; began organizing anti-Castro force to invade Cuba  Did not work – problem left for Kennedy now JFK came into office and was eager for decisive action against communism and Castro - Believed Castro needed to be stopped and Eisenhower hadn’t done enough to stop him o U.S. involvement in this was supposed to be secret - Bay of Pigs – Kennedy’s 1 foreign policy project; major failure o This was the landing space designated for the invasion force into Cuba Vienna Summit, June 1961: Kennedy and Khrushchev met to discuss Germany’s division - Germany and city of Berlin divided into East and West sections o Democratic government (West) and Communist government (East) - Khrushchev wanted to stop the flow of East Berlin people into West Berlin - Overall, Summit ended badly – Khrushchev had underestimated Kennedy’s experience Berlin Crisis, Summer 1961: began building Berlin Wall - Surrounded entire West Berlin – only stopping flow of eastern people into west - JFK’s reaction – “a wall is better than a war” o Idea: wasn’t losing control of the West; also feared that putting pressure on the Soviets would lead to nuclear war October 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis Operation Mongoose – before the Missile Crisis; an overt action taken against the government - Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy was in charge of operation Castro moved closer to the Soviets, declaring himself a Communist by the end of 1961 Spring 1962: Khrushchev sent nuclear weapons to Cuba to protect Castro Missile Gap – Americans were ahead of the Soviets; their long range missile force was much stronger/larger than the Soviets - Soviets closed gap via placement of short-range missiles on “America’s doorstep” (Cuba) October 16, 1962: confirmed that Soviets building missile sites in Cuba st 1 step taken by President Kennedy – quarantine all Soviet boats entering area UN Ambassador at this time was Adlai Stevenson The option: US will withdraw weapons from Turkey if the Soviets withdraw from Cuba Black Saturday – Soviets push US water quarantine line, shooting down an American spy plane - Shooting down of plane puts us on brink of nuclear war o Robert Kennedy and Soviet ambassador discuss/agree on a deal to stop the crisis Crisis was settled, but US’s role was kept secret for 30 years - What appeared to be the end of the crisis in 1962 was very different from what happened in reality July 1963: Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - Weapons could not be tested above-ground, in oceans, or space June 10, 1963: American University Speech - Kennedy readdressed his inaugural speech, changing the Cold War perspective - “Let them come to Berlin” – in response to doubts about the severity of the Cold War, doubts about US/Soviet relations, etc. HIST 3220: Music Thursday – Girl Groups 9/1/16 The Shirelles, “Will You Love Me Tomorrow?” – big hit in 1961 The Ronettes, “Be My Baby” – majorly popular; best example of girl groups For youth culture, rock & roll played a significant part - What young people did, how they dressed, etc. – wasn’t based on their parents’ ideals - Shaped by national institutions, productions; mass media, TV; music 1946 – 1964: the baby boom (post WWII) - Median age for marriage: 20-21 women, 22-23 men o People didn’t wait to have kids; often children were close together in age Affluence – the idea that “things were good,” as in with parents, businesses, kids, etc. By 1960: there were 18 million teenagers – they spent around $10 mil/year on consumer items Community feelings consisted of high school, malt shops, cards & radio Rock & roll – had a huge audience of young people, but was dominated by male performers - Helped define American youth, their thoughts, their lives, etc. - Was a product of the times – talk about racial, sexual, and other themes Brenda Lee & Wanda Jackson – both being female, they were the minority in music The Brill Building, NYC – center of most rock & roll culture/work Mike Stoller & Jerry Leiber – mostly wrote for African American culture, making them highly successful in the Brill Building Carole King & Gerry Goffin – wrote “Will You Love Me Tomorrow,” an instant hit - Song was popularized by The Shirelles – a hugely successful girl group Alfred Kinsey/Kinsey Reports – often wrote about human sexuality - found that same-sex relations were actually quite common and that 90% of men and 50% of women had pre-marital sex “the pill” – the 1 oral contraceptive introduced in 1960 “Will You Love Me Tomorrow?” – 1 recording by a girl group to hit number one - Very “taboo” song with lyrics about passion/love, frank language, gearing towards the younger girls o Explored sexual boundaries - Show how female performers (and some male) provided advice in a time of such conflict Lesley Gore – conflicting female artist - “Maybe I Know He’s Cheating” vs. “You Don’t Own Me” o Is she a submissive partner or is she an independent woman? Berry Gordy Jr. – hit African American songwriter with the intent of writing for blacks & whites “race music” – typically for and by blacks Hitsville U.S.A./Motown: Gordy played major role in its success, being its founder - Success found through crossover hits – songs that are popular on more than one genre/music board - Distinctive sound for Motown: stomping rhythm Maxine Powell – charm school teacher; taught women how to present themselves, some of which came from horrible backgrounds Cholly Atkins – choreographer; taught men and women how to be appealing, play to the strengths of their individual features Heavy investments for Motown – sound, look, presentation Martha & the Vandellas, The Supremes – two examples of the “total” Motown package “bad girls” – the emergence of new girl groups in 1964 - Challenged the stereotype for women at the time, unlike Motown artists Shangri-Las – popular bad girl group; wore pants, not skirts which was unheard of at the time Phil Spector – important figure in this era, working by his own rules and writing and producing what he wanted to do - Wall of Sound – the style he created and perfected; Spector’s trademark Darlene Love – used as an interchangeable artist and often controlled by Spector The Ronettes – Spector’s ultimate and number one “bad girl group” - Lead singer, Ronny Bennett, was Spector’s favorite – they married later on because he loved her and her sound so much HIST 3220: Sit-ins, Freedom Rides, and Civil Rights 9/6/16 Little Eva, “The Loco-Motion” – #1 single the summer of 1962 Dee Dee Sharp, “Mashed Potato Time” – hit song Carole King & Gerry Goffin partook in some success of both artists and songs Civil rights – guaranteed to individuals and associated with citizenship NAACP – promoted civil rights in a variety of ways Why did the civil rights become such a major national issue (again) in the 1950s/60s? - Demography, population, etc. The migration of blacks to the North from the South was caused by… - Economic/job opportunities - Mechanization of the South (machines begin to replace people) - Voting privileges Supreme Court rulings: - Brown vs. Board of Education – landmark case (1954); public school segregation is unconstitutional o Thurgood Marshall – major lawyer, 1 African American elected as judge o Chief Justice Earl Warren – served 1953 – 1969 - “separate, but equal” – NO, this is unconstitutional Beginning 1960s: only 2% of African Americans attended desegregated schools - Due to wording of court ruling, “with all deliberate speed” o This allowed for justification in the slow occurring of desegregation Little Rock Crisis , 1957: gradual desegregation by one grade at a time, starting at Central HS - Absolute chaos ensued – blacks were not protected, leading to mob violence - Example of how a local issue was quickly turned into a national issue o Eisenhower had to enforce federal law in Little Rock – sent in federal troops “home rule” – the people of each state have the power to govern law for their state - Another way in which whites fought desegregation - Forced more federal government intervention to enforce federal law of desegregation Direct action – deliberate disobedience, doing it now and not waiting for later February 1, 1960: Greensboro, NC Sit-In - 4 blacks deliberately sat at a “whites only” diner counter to challenge segregation - Resistance to the sit-ins led to violence (ex: food/drink dumped, kicks & punches, etc.) Nashville, TN was viewed as “Progressive” for being in the higher south - Much discrimination & segregation still occurred here, but less extreme than deep south Diane Nash – 21 yrs. old in 1960; became the unofficial spokesperson for the sit-ins John Lewis – 20 yrs. old in 1960; motivated by religious beliefs to challenge segregation James Lawson – civil rights advocate; organized workshops to fight segregation Ben West – Nashville mayor who dealt with many of the sit-ins Nashville Sit-Ins – viewed as a major success even though it’s only a local victory - Turned the question of civil rights into a moral issue SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee), April 1960: - Started the use of direct action for the advancement of desegregation Freedom Riders: why were they mostly young kids? - Empowerment, having a voice for the first time, shaping the future… - Women were underrepresented – intentional; didn’t want to suggest interracial love - Drew inspiration from the sit-ins, picking up where earlier occurrences left of Freedom Rides goal – to force the enforcement of previous court decisions outlawing segregation on interstate bus travel John Seigenthaler – special assistant to Attorney General Robert Kennedy Religion & Ghandi – major inspirations for the Freedom Riders - People focused on civil rights, equality, morality all through the use of nonviolent means Why were some activists against the rides? - Seen as dangerous – there would be violence & backlash (radicals) and a lack of help/support from law enforcement o Especially in Alabama – local law enforcement even helped facilitate violence HIST 3220: King, Kennedy, and Civil Rights 9/8/16 Paul Revere & the Raiders, “Louie, Louie” – released 1963 The Kingsmen, “Louie, Louie” – later in 1963, more popular reaching #1 in January 1964 - Last American song to hit #1 before the Beatles arrival in February 1964 - Caused FBI investigation – were the lyrics obscene/sexually explicit? o Slurring of words made it hard to identify Mass movements and direct action – major parts of fight for civil rights Martin Luther King Jr. – most prominent leader in the civil rights movement - Grew up in the North, family was well of – wasn’t hit with the reality of civil rights until reaching Montgomery, Alabama Rosa Parks – bus incident in 1955, which sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott (King was a major spokesperson/supporter) - King saw the widespread efects – segregation/racism extended beyond Alabama - Supreme Court ruled in favor of protestors, making segregation unconstitutional J. Edgar Hoover - Director of the FBI and King’s greatest critic - Believed King was destroying public order, so kept major intel on him (ex: wire taps) o All that was discovered was King was having afairs while traveling out of town - Heavy criticism: threatened to expose King’s afairs if he didn’t resign from his position of leadership in the civil rights movement o Threats didn’t work; King forged on and later won Nobel Peace Prize President Kennedy was not incredibly concerned with civil rights at the time - Gave it low priority after his election, main concern with the Cold War King on Kennedy: he has a “limited goal on token integration” “Ink for Jack” campaign – African Americans started mailing pens in to the White House to provide Kennedy with a pen to finally sign the executive order he’d been promising to them to eliminate segregation Attorney General Robert Kennedy was left to maintain black support for JFK James Meredith – wanted to enroll at Ole Miss, a traditionally all-white school Gov. Ross Barnett – fully opposed integration (segregationist) - Personally intervened to stop Meredith’s enrollment at Ole Miss In response, Meredith got a court order to enroll at this university - Barnett still outright denied him face-to-face, calling it “racial suicide” Kennedy made secret phone calls to Barnett over Meredith case, trying to allow his enrollment - Result: violence outbreaks, forcing Kennedy to send in the troops (he didn’t want to) Birmingham Crisis, May 1963: - King was at the center of this, making it the next crisis Kennedy had to intervene in - King’s campaign failure in Albany, Georgia showed local police chief’s restraint - Gov. George Wallace – segregationist taking office in 1963 - Eugene “Bull” Connor – chief of law enforcement in Birmingham, commissioner of public safety; also a segregationist - White moderates didn’t like the negative image put on the city, but what could they do? - King’s Project C – confrontation; the use of young (HS kids) to draw attention o Used kids to demonstrate against segregation because they had nothing to lose if they were jailed (ex: jobs) o Wallace tried to stop them via use of police dogs, fire water hoses, etc. o Forced negotiations about integration, lunch counters, jobs, etc.  Supremists still fought this, causing further escalation of violence  Kennedy was forced into action yet again over civil rights June 11, 1963: University of Alabama, Kennedy’s Civil Rights Speech - Traditionally all-white school, became most important speech ever - Turned question of civil rights into a moral issue, requiring political action Medgar Evers – head of the NAACP in Mississippi that was killed the night of Kennedy’s speech - This murder further escalated the violence August 28, 1963: March on Washington - March for jobs, for freedom, for civil rights - Initially opposed by Kennedy in fear of threatening the new legislation - The occurrence of Martin Luther King’s famous “I Have a Dream” speech HIST 3220: Discussion – Freedom Rides, Kennedy, and Civil Rights 9/13/16 On PBS site – documentary site on Freedom Riders (useful knowledge source) Morgan vs. Virginia Commonwealth, 1944: - Segregated bus travel for interstate travelers was ruled unconstitutional - Landmark case for the historical era of WWII o The ideological value of “anti-racism” for war ≠ behavior of segregation in the US NAACP goal/principle: work within the court systems CORE goal/principle: non-violent direct action - ex: boycotts, sit-ins, lunch counters, freedom rides Early figures of the movement - James Farmer – co-founder of CORE; rights activist - Bayard Rustin – major activist; also notable, he was gay (unheard of at the time) - James Peck – white man; participant in both freedom rides st st Journey of Reconciliation, 1944 – 1 ever “freedom ride” to occur; CORE’s 1 major movement Why did it take 17 years for the next set of freedom rides to take place? - Inspirations came from… o JFK, who called for change (they believed it would finally happen) o Sit-ins, which were successful and called for mass public attention o Zero change had actually occurred – all these court cases, no enforcement  This brought about testings of the law Protestors vs. activists – who’s who? - Protestors were the white segregationists, activists were the Freedom Riders o What about morals and ethicality?  Ex: conservative, white supremacy, liberal, progressive, etc. Segregationists considered participants of the Freedom Rides to be “communists” Kennedy’s stance: wanted to support the movement, but didn’t want to lose support himself - He could gain black support, but lose support of more extreme whites (mostly in South) Due to violent outbreaks being televised, the Freedom Rides gave America a bad public image Why were Mississippi and Alabama so much worse in terms of segregation? - They were so deep South that they were yet to be touched by the federal government; they were still deeply rooted in the “traditionally Southern” way of life Outcomes of the rides (mentioned in the epilogue of the book): - Increased/enhancement of federal government involvement - Students began leading rather than adults HIST 3220: Dallas, Camelot, and the Kennedy Promise 9/15/16 Vaughn Meader, “The First Family” – comedy album released 1962 - Big seller during holiday season & awarded a Grammy in 1964 Gallup poll: Kennedy’s lowest approval rate was 59%, the largest for all popular Presidents Why was Kennedy so popular? - Not just for his office achievements, which were an average of good and bad - People loved his style – the Kennedy family was glamorous, beautiful, charming, etc. However the image and reality of Kennedy diverged New Frontier - Kennedy’s domestic plan/agenda, also in reference to the opening of the 1960s - Moderately liberal agenda – “liberalism,” which rang positively with the people in remembrance of Roosevelt o Goal to use the powers of government to improve the American people’s lives  Ex: greater economic growth, greater security, etc. o “liberalism” was for helping ALL people (in Kennedy’s eyes)  Wanted to build on previous Democrats plans Conservatives were highly powerful during Kennedy’s time, limiting many of his proposals - Kennedy wanted to increase min. wage – only went from $1 to $1.25 (partial success) - Wanted to increase federal aid to education – failed attempt - Wanted health insurance for the elderly – failed attempt - Wanted to increase funding for low-income housing and provide mortgages for the middle class – successful Based on above examples, Kennedy’s track record was average Overall Americans were impressed with Kennedy’s image - Qualities – family-oriented, relatable, young, active, well-spoken, etc. - Successful leader, evident in his ability to convey optimism to the people February 14, 1962: Jackie Kennedy - She hosted a tour of the White House, utilizing TV much like her husband and giving of the major image of a traditional housewife - She appealed to many with her image of grace, eloquence, etc. JFK the individual had major health problems, including weak bones, back problems (which is why he typically had a rocking chair), Addison’s disease, insomnia… Max Jacobson a.k.a “Dr. Feelgood” – doctor for stars/celebrities, who Kennedy turned to for his own physical ailments - Doctor eventually lost his medical license due to unusual/dangerous treatments o There’s no evidence that his practices adversely afected Kennedy’s abilities So the question… was the real JFK more heroic than his public image? Despite Kennedy’s family-oriented image, he still had extramarital afairs - Ex: Jayne Mansfield, Angie Dickenson, Fiddle/Faddle = Priscilla Wear/Jill Cowen, Pamela Turnure, Mimi Alford – WH intern & Kennedy’s longest afair Dave Powers – helped to facilitate many of Kennedy’s sexual afairs Marilyn Monroe, “Happy Birthday, Mr. President” - Peter Lawford introduced her to Kennedy, later becoming their facilitator Jackie Kennedy knew about all of his Kennedy’s afairs, but she didn’t want to make them public, which may explain all her constant travels Judith Campbell Exner – slept with both Kennedy and Sam Giancana – one of the largest organized crime mobsters in America – and she acted as a currier between them Ellen Rometsch – grew up/lived in Germany before coming to America; she was a prostitute, mostly for political figures and so involved with Kennedy J. Edgar Hoover – threatened to expose Kennedy’s sexual escapades before going to Robert Kennedy and telling him about his brother’s involvement with Rometsch - Afraid that she was a spy and being a major threat to all political figures she’d been involved with, she was immediately deported back to Germany November 22, 1963: Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, TX - Arrival in Love Field – the photo contains Jackie Kennedy in her famous pink dress Lee Harvey Oswald - Arrested by local police, not for assassination (initially) but for murder of police officer o Later arrested/transferred to county jail for assassination - Murdered on live TV via gunshot to the stomach Jack Ruby – nightclub owner/operator who shot Oswald - Shooting was done out of anger, but also to “spare Mrs. Kennedy a trial” Warren Commission: - Headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, the 9 – 10 month investigation of this “crime of the century” that “robbed America of its innocence” - Warren Commission Report, 1964: concluded that Oswald acted alone in the assassination and that Ruby acted alone in killing Oswald o Many conspiracy theories spurted from this conclusion Abraham Zapruder – took film of Kennedy’s motorcade using 8 mm film - Zapruder film – most solid piece/best evidence film of Kennedy’s assassination Single Bullet Theory – one single bullet was fired, first passing through Kennedy before striking Governor John Connally in the back (who was seated directly in front of Kennedy) Monday, November 25, 1963: Kennedy’s funeral in Washington Camelot Legacy - December 1963: Jackie Kennedy interviewed w/ Life Magazine - “one brief shining moment” – comparison of Kennedy to Camelot - “there will never be another president like JFK” - To this day, people still look at Kennedy’s presidency as one brief shining moment HIST 3220: “Let Us Continue” – LBJ and the War on Povery 9/20/16 Brenda Lee, “Is It True?” – a.k.a. “little miss dynamite,” song went to #17 in America & Britain The Reflections, “Just Like Romeo & Juliet” – one-hit wonders Both songs came out in 1964, around the start of Johnson’s presidency Dick Clark’s American Bandstand - Begun in Philadelphia in early 1950s, show was all about music and dance o Played popular songs of the time with weekly showings on primetime air November 22, 1963: LBJ takes presidential oath onboard Air Force One in Dallas, TX - Jackie Kennedy was present – symbolic of power exchange from Kennedy administration to Johnson’s admin. Johnson as President - No one really knew who he was – made Johnson really nervous, especially when factoring in comparisons to Kennedy (inferiority complex) Johnson’s speech on Capitol Hill – less than a week after becoming President, it was to reassure Americans of the shared grief over the loss of Kennedy and the carrying on of his administration - Became the most important speech he ever had – “Let Us Continue” However, Americans remember… - FDR died in 1945, Truman took over – led to comparisons o Johnson did not want this to happen to him, but was afraid he wouldn’t be able to live up to Kennedy’s legacy o Also didn’t want to be seen as unfit/unable to carry out the duties of President Lyndon B. Johnson (before the presidency) - Texas southerner with leanings towards conservatism - Claim was that he was more like Kennedy and his ways (ex: FDR & the New Deal) o Involved in the New Deal programs of the 1930s and liked them because they helped those in need 1955: Johnson’s elected Senate majority leader, making him the youngest ever (at the time) - Knew how to make the Senate work, knew how to get things passed Johnson’s main concern was with domestic reform - Goal: build off the New Deal & Fair Deal, wanted to build unity Growth liberalism – a way of using economic policy to expand federal programs Harry F. Byrd – Senate committee chair, Democrat from Virginia Tax cut of 1964: Johnson got done what Kennedy could not (Kennedy previously proposed tax cuts but was struck down) - Passage of this boosted Johnson’s approval in relation to post-Kennedy era John Kenneth Galbraith – one of the best economists of 1950s & ‘60s, close to Kennedy - The Affluent Society – his book about economic growth, a prosperous society, etc. - Can’t simply rely on economic growth o US can afford something to lift those from poverty  Government action is necessary, cannot rely on affluence Michael Harrington’s book, The Other America, 1962: - Culture of poverty – not due just to jobless or disabled o Maybe due to lack of a family unit, drugs, crime, poor education, etc. Johnson was a large proponent against poverty because, unlike Kennedy, he had experience with poverty in his past - State of the Union Address, 1964: calling Americans to the “war on poverty” - The plan: lift people from poverty, which benefits everyone o Of course money helps, but the focus is on providing actual help, training, assistance, etc. to the less fortunate  While these were all good ideas, Johnson still had no clear philosophy R. Sargent Shriver – brother-in-law to Kennedy, another play on the grief of his loss - appointed by Johnson to head the war on poverty due to his previous experience with foreign policy/poverty abroad (his work in the Peace Corps) Economic Opportunity Act, August 1964 VISTA – Volunteers in Service to America - like the international Peace Corps, but at home rather than abroad Job Corps – offered training and education programs Head Start – preschool program allowing kids the opportunity to maximize their education Community action programs – addressed specific needs of the poor - set up nationally by local people with funding from the federal government Maximum feasible participation – roots lie in community action programs Criticisms on the War on Poverty: expensive, ineffective, etc. HIST 3220: Music Thursday – The British Invasion 9/22/16 Paul McCartney Tour 2016 & Zip Code Tour for the Rolling Stones 2015 - exemplify how popular and relevant both artists/groups still are today The British Invasion, begin January 1964 - when the 1 Beatles album was released - suggested one-way movement of music from Britain to America o reality was that it was two-way movement between US and Britain February 1964: The Beatles first came to America - until this point, most Americans hadn’t even seen or heard of this band Beatles music – fundamentally British, but with American influence Skiffle – like a “repackaging” of American folk music, popular in Britain Lonnie Donegan – can be credited with creation of “skiffle” music, which influenced the Beatles - only has one hit in America – “Does Your Chewing Gum Lose Its Flavor…” in 1961 st Meet the Beatles – 1 Beatles album released in the US Beatles success due to… - publicity campaign – major; newspapers, radio, etc. - effective use of TV – the Ed Sullivan show Ed Sullivan – hosted one hour shows on Sunday evenings, having something for everyone (ex: music, comedy, etc.) and consistently rated among the top 5 shows on TV - booked the Beatles for 3 consecutive shows o February 9, 1964: record-breaking all-time highest viewed show where the Beatles performed “All My Loving” for the first time on American TV February 11, 1964: Beatles hosted a concert in D.C. Also in 1964: Beatles visit the Peppermint Lounge in NYC, showing their interactions with fans April 4, 1964: Beatles became the first (and only) band to ever achieve the top 5 #1 singles on the Billboard Hot 100 Beatlemania – term pegged to the sensational popularity of the Beatles - Could incite public frenzies (much like Elvis) o In some ways, they were more successful than Elvis due to the larger availability of TVs and the larger amount of youths (from the baby boom) Why Beatlemania? - Sheer joy of seeing them/their performances - Their enthusiasm on stage - Country was coming out of a majorly sad time (JFK’s assassination only months earlier) - Had sex appeal, but not like Elvis – they were more androgynous o Ex: their long hair was representative of blurring gender boundaries - Challenged adult authority in an “acceptable” way Beatles popularity grew through 1964, even starring in movies (ex: Hard Day’s Night) - Even their music began changing, becoming more controversial by 1965 John Lennon on the Beatles - “the Beatles are more popular than Jesus” – words taken way out of context o Major backlash to the band, making touring difficult  Also the outrageous amount of fans made touring difficult because the craze was getting out of hand 1965: the Beatles stop touring, but their music becomes more introspective Beatles also became major figures on social issues, expanding the “boundaries” of rock artists Peter & Gordon – from London, the first to gain American popularity post- Beatles - Got start via Peter’s sister’s boyfriend – Paul McCartney o Given the song “A World Without Love”  Example of them capitalizing on Beatle popularity, using a song written by the band but one the Beatles decided not to use Gerry & the Pacemakers, Billy J. Kramer & the Dakotas - Both from Liverpool (like the Beatles) and were popular, but not at the Beatles’ level Dave Clark Five – became popular in Britain in 1963 - The only band to appear capable of competing with the Beatles’ popularity - Had 18 Top 40 hits in America, such as “Catch Us If You Can” - Popular and liked by Americans, but still couldn’t compete with the Beatles Rolling Stones - Came to America shortly after the Beatles and had much influence from American music as well, mainly blues – ex: blues of the deep South, Chicago Electric blues, etc. - Inspired by artists such as Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry, etc. - Did not have initial success like the Beatles, but were able to get on the Dean Martin Show, which was second to the Ed Sullivan Show Fall 1964: Stones did reach Ed Sullivan Show - Difficult to follow-up the Beatles, but still had major success The Rolling Stones – 1 album, having only one Jagger/Richards song - Album consisted mostly of covers with goal to expose the youth to the original blues Rolling Stones vs. the Beatles - Haircuts: sexy with the Stones, loveable mop-tops with the Beatles - Sex appeal: Stones capitalized on being “bad boys,” Beatles portrayed good boy image July 1965: “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” – Rolling Stones first #1 hit - This with “Let’s Spend the Night Together” received heavy criticism for explicit lyrics o Forced to either bleep the words out or change the lyrics on live TV (1965-’67) The Animals – also gained popularity in the 60s and drew influence from American blues - Looked more like the Beatles, but sounded more like the Stones - July 1964: “House of the Rising Sun” – #1 hit The Yardbirds – had one hit song in 1965, “I’m A Man” - Had 3 of greatest guitarists of all-time: Jimmy Page, Jeff Beck, & Eric Clapton The Kinks – became popular in the US at the end of 1964 w/ the song “Girl You Really Got Me” Dusty Springfield – female performer, also part of the British Invasion (popular before Beatles) - Known for blue eyed soul, had a distinctive style - Refused to conform (ex: openness about her same-sex relations) - Released music in the fall of 1963 with hits on the charts in January 1964 - Recognized by the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 1999 – 10 years after her eligibility o Example of how bad/sexist the hall is in accepting and inducting women Petula Clark, “Downtown” – #1 hit in January 1965 Freddie & the Dreamers – unusual group, but were able to achieve some success - Hit song in 1965, “I’m Telling You Now” HIST 3220: 9/27/16 Goldwater, the Fracturing of the Republican Party, and the Election of 1964 Beach Boys, “Surfin’ USA” – first big hit in 1962, they signed with Capitol Records Beach Boys, “I Get Around” – big hit in 1964 and very representative of California August 25, 1964: Democrats are holding a convention - Absolute certainty that Johnson’s going to win the nomination - Johnson calls George Reedy – his press secretary – and tells him over the phone that he does not want to be nominated and is going to drop out of the race Johnson’s concerns tie back to his passage of desegregation laws - Would he have the support of southern white opposition (potential political enemies)? His withdrawal from the race would show his insecurities – he’s thin-skinned, has doubts of his own abilities, fear of selection… Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party – alternative to the other (all white) Democratic Party in Mississippi, making it majorly inclusive of all races and more representative of whole state - Caused discontent with Johnson, who viewed them as a problem o His offer/ “solution”: give them two seats – still majorly underrepresented Fannie Lou Hamer – gave testimony for representation at the Democratic convention - “I question America” – in response to them not being seated, which led to violence Barry Goldwater – Republican Senator from Arizona running for President against Johnson Conscience of a Conservative, 1960: Goldwater’s best-selling book that was almost like a bible to the Republican Party - “a choice, not an echo” Goldwater’s conservatism – major on anti-Communism - In favor of desegregation, but opposed civil rights act due to the power it gives to the federal government o Majorly concerned with the federal government power growing too large Nelson Rockefeller – leading Republican candidate and governor of New York - Lost lead in race when he divorced his wife to marry a younger woman o Considered taboo and morally wrong for the period of time this occurred F. Clifton White – conservative Republican activist - wanted to turn the Republican Party into the conservative party – felt Goldwater was the best to lead this movement/change Rockefeller’s last attempt to erase Goldwater from the race was pointing out the threat of a nuclear war over Vietnam Robert Welch – manufacturer; extremely conservative - The Politician, 1964: Welch’s critical book on Eisenhower, accusing him of treason American Opinion, 1964 – a conservative magazine John Birch Society – members flocked to Goldwater campaign - Now what’s called “far-right-leaning” conservatives – very extreme Rockefeller knew he wouldn’t win the nominations - took last efforts to denounce the Republican party from extremism o emphasized Goldwater’s and extreme conservatives hostile takeover of the party, causing a major division among Republicans Goldwater in response to Rockefeller - “Extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice.” - “Moderation in the name of justice is no virtue.” William E. Miller – chosen as Goldwater’s running mate; virtually a nobody, but his views closely coincided with Goldwater’s views Johnson’s concern with the Democratic nomination rooted in the insecurity that his presidency was inherited (because of JFK’s death), not earned Now, there’s no Vice President – who should he choose as a running mate? - Logical choice is Robert Kennedy, but Johnson opposed due to hostile relationship - Hubert Humphrey – chosen as Johnson’s running mate “The Johnson Treatment” – Johnson’s form of persuasion (ex: flattery, strong- arming, etc.) Albert Thomas – Democratic representative from Texas who received “the Johnson treatment” via a telephone call Daisy Commercial – Johnson’s campaign ad playing on the fears of how Goldwater’s extremism would lead to a nuclear war October 27, 1964: Ronald Reagan, “A Time for Choosing” - Reagan was originally known as an actor, becoming a political figure over time - Gave what’s called “the speech” – something he’d worked on for years - Goldwater used him as a last attempt at gaining support for his presidency run - Reagan’s speech framed the choice of liberty vs. loss of liberty o Stood for limited government, victory over abroad enemies, etc. o If Americans made the wrong choice, there’d be repercussions for decades - This speech didn’t help Goldwater, but launched Reagan’s political career 1964: Johnson had a landslide win over Goldwater in the election HIST 3220: LBJ, Civil Rights, and the Great Society 9/29/16 Jr. Walker & the All Stars, “Shotgun” – reached #4 Billboard Top 100 in 1965 The Temptations, “My Girl” – #1 hit in 1965, launching their career Johnson believed in the American dream - Felt he lived it – came from poor background in TX all the way to President o Never forgot roots, adding a personal dimension to commitment to social reform o Goal was to provide greater opportunity and education to all Reasons for Johnson winning election and his popularity - major strength in Congress – Democrats severely outnumbered and out-represented Republicans in both the House and Senate - Goldwater’s extreme far-right views o Johnson’s chance to showcase his own abilities/mainstream ideals - Johnson came to presidency in a time of economic prosperity Johnson & civil rights - Quick commitment to pass the civil rights bill into law (originally proposed by Kennedy) o Some questioned him since he was a Southern Democrat o Johnson reassured his commitment – “Free at last!” (drawn from MLK’s speech)  Referencing Johnson being free from his TX senator roots  Doesn’t have to provide for just one state now, but all of them - Believed desegregation to be good for the South – advancement of civil rights made the South more like the rest of the country (more acceptance) - Both a moral and political issue – Johnson never lost sight of the politics Sen. Richard Russell – long-time senator with much power who was also Johnson’s mentor - Majorly opposed to civil rights – despite differences, Russell and Johnson maintained a close friendship - Led 2 month (75 days exactly) filibuster against civil rights – longest in Senate history Hubert Humphrey – VP; called upon by Johnson for help with Democratic support on civil rights Sen. Everett Dicksen – Republican called upon by Johnson for help passing the civil rights bill and gaining support from other Republicans June 1964: 71 – 29 vote on civil rights act July 2, 1964: Civil Rights act passed and signed Civil Rights Act of 1964 – ended discrimination on account of race - Title VII – within the civil rights act, also ended discrimination on account of sex - Official ruling of segregation as being unconstitutional February 1964: Johnson summoned two White House reps to swimming pool for unconventional meet - Richard Goodwin & Bill Moyers – close advisors to Johnson, helping him to find ways to create his vision for a better society - Purpose of meet was to find ways to surpass the things Kennedy had done The Good Society, 1937: by Walter Lippman, where Goodwin drew his inspiration for Johnson - Slipped “great society” (a play off the title) tagline into many of Johnson’s speeches May 7, 1964: Johnson visited Ohio University, discussing this “great society” May 22, 1964: Johnson’s “Great Society Speech” at University of Michigan - Spoke of vision to improve the standards of living and quality of life o To create this great society – Johnson relied on task forces made up experts in numerous areas (ex: poverty, rural issues, education, etc.) June 1965: State of the Union Address - Johnson asked Congress to take action on shaping this Great Society o Wanted to build on American values and traditions – build on previous plans o Idea: work closely with Congress to gain their support and partnership - Johnson knew he had a limited window of opportunity (despite current popularity) o Wanted to move fast – in response, sent a torrent of legislation to Congress  Ex: urban development, urban renewal, etc. - Stressor point: the plan is beneficial to EVERYBODY, not just one specific class of people Education – felt this was the major key to success - Wanted to expand the federal role, feeling everyone deserved an opportunity to college and better elementary/secondary school education o Wanted to provide more to the people (not just veterans, like with the GI Bill) - April 11, 1965: Elementary & Secondary Education Act o Program to increase teachers’ salaries and provide instruction to the underprivileged and non-English speaking citizens o Still a limited act – much funding came from local and state departments  Emphasis was supposed to be on a larger federal role - November 1965: Higher Education Act o Called for significant expansion – library/librarian training, allowed students to take out small loans to pay for college Medicaid/Medicare – start with healthcare for the elderly, provided from the federal level - Rooted in personal reasons – both Johnson’s parents’ issues, his own heart attack, etc. Rep. Wilbur Mills – critical player in the passage of the healthcare act - Headed the committee to all major financial legislation – very strict about the money Medicare for the elderly, Medicaid for the poor - Funded due to the belief that the country could afford it – even Mills was ready to sign - Doctors worries – why is the government involved with medicine? o Johnson & Mills overcome: charge patients the regular cost because we (meaning the country/government) can afford it August 1965: Medicare legislation signed Shortly after, Mills political roles were ended by scandal - Fanne Fox, “The Argentine Firecracker” – stripper involved in Mills’ sex scandal In the election of 1964, Johnson didn’t want to lose the South indefinitely - Extreme white southerners dominated the South, leaving minimal black involvement - Belief: more registered black voters would lead to more southern support o Idea was that the registered blacks would even out the votes of white supremists Martin Luther King Jr. took Johnson’s initiative to get more blacks registered to vote - Organized demonstrations to bring attention to the issue of blacks being denied the chance to register to vote (notably in Selma, Alabama) March 7, 1965: blacks march from Selma to Montgomery in protest - Local police and others – determined to stop march, notably Gov. Wallace - Came to be known as “Bloody Sunday” – nonviolent demonstrators beaten and attacked by white supremists still stuck in traditionalist ways Voting Rights Act – signed into law the summer of 1965, result from Bloody Sunday - MLK and other notable civil rights figures present at the signing - If locals continued denying blacks the right to vote, federal troops would step in o Result: black voter registration increased from under 10% to over 50%


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