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GEO 2210-01 Notes Weeks 1-5

by: Justin Pepera

GEO 2210-01 Notes Weeks 1-5 GEO 2210-01

Marketplace > Wright State University > Geography > GEO 2210-01 > GEO 2210 01 Notes Weeks 1 5
Justin Pepera

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About this Document

Notes cover basics of geography, society/environment sustainability and the Middle East and North Africa.
Non-Western Human Environments
Class Notes
geography, intro to the Middle East, North, African, Society, Environment
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justin Pepera on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 2210-01 at Wright State University taught by Titanski-Hooper in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Non-Western Human Environments in Geography at Wright State University.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
8/31/2016 Thinking like a Geographer 1. ​What is Geography? → Physical → Human → Environmental → World Regional 2. ​Maps and Mapping → Geographers rely on maps to illustrate patterns and processes → A map is a ​visual representation and​generalization of the world * Key Terms → ​Coordinates:​ Latitude and Longitude → ​Projection:​ what relationship are we trying to show? Never completely accurate. (Mercader and Robinson projections). → ​Scale:​ Local, national, global, etc. 3. ​Place and the making of regions *​Components of a place: → Location → Locale → Sense of place A. Location:​ measureable point in space, a node, latitude and longitude coordinates or locatable addresses. B. Locale:​ the built, natural, and social environment or landscape. C. Sense of place:​ the emotions, experiences, and meanings that tie people to particular environments. * Sense of place has many meanings: Inclusions: → People define themselves through a sense of place; -who we are is connected to where we are (or where we are from). → Places are imagined -Different people have many different ideas about the location and boundaries of a place. -We decide which practices, ways of life, values, and people are welcome in places. Exclusions: → Therefore, we also decide who and what is unwelcome in a place. → If a community is defined by a particular religion, nationality, gender, sexuality, race, etc. → Then, those who don’t fit those descriptions are considered undesirable or excluded. → This can be cultural exclusion, or exclusion through political, economic and social rights. *Sense of place contributes to: → Geographical Imaginations: how people think about the world around them-their own places and the places of others. → We have geographical imaginaries of regions -Who lives there -Their language and culture -The physical environment → We have geographical imaginaries of non-western regions -Ideas of development *A sense of place can be → Local → National → Regional → Global Environment, Society and Sustainabi​ lity ​ 9/2/16 1​. The Anthropocene and Political Ecology Anthro ​ pocene: The period of earth’s history where human activity dominates the earth system. → We cannot look at environmental processes as completely separate from society. → Instead, the environment impacts society, and society impacts the environment in many different ways. → ​Poli​ tical Ecology: the study of the relationship between society, economy, politics and the environment. 2. ​ limate, Climate Change, and Vulnerability → Temperature is only one measure of climate change → Artic most likely to experience temperature increase. C​ limate Vulnerability: → ​Geographic Closeness​ to extreme projects (high temps, floods, droughts) → ​Social Vulnerability​: age, gender, and economic standing can affect a persons ability to withstand climate change. *A poor person is less likely to be able to move or to live in a home that can withstand extreme climate environments. 3. ​Geological Risks, Resources, and Water → Earth’s physical features greatly influence how people live in different landscapes. ​ →​ Geomorphology: the study of the physical processes that create these features ​ → R​ ing of fire: where earthquakes and volcanoes threaten the lives and homes of residents of the western Americas. → Rivers and lakes are critical sources of freshwater for ecosystems and for human activity. *Cities, industries and agriculture are often located near or adjacent to water sources → The risk of flooding and erosion is prevalent for this reason *Some people and places are more vulnerable to these risks 4. Ecology, Land and Environmental Management ​ →​ Ecosystems: the interactions between living organisms and their physical surroundings ​ → B ​ iodiversity: the variety and differences in the types and numbers of species in different regions of the world. ​ →​ Ecosystem Services: biodiversity and ecosystems provide food, building materials, medicine, recreation, etc. to humans. → Ecosystmes are increasingly altered by human activity *Biodiversity is lost *Ecosystem Services are threatened → Intentional vs. Unintentional interventions *Deforestation for development of agriculture or growth of cities. ​ *​ nvasive Species: accidental spread of plants or animals that can overtake or alter a new host environment *Conservation efforts ​ *​ ewilding: reintroduction key species back into systems where they have been threatened Colonialism: a political and economic system in which regions and societies are legally, economically and politically dominated by an external society. History, Economy, Territory Coloni​ alism: a political and economic system in which regions and societies are legally, economically and politically dominated by an external society. Decolo​ nization: Revolution in the Americas, and the ultimate cost of maintaining colonies over long distance weakened colonial powers. → Post WW2, there was a rapid period of decolonization → Legacies of colonialism remain *Boundaries, Social, Economic and Political Structures ​ Communism: a form of economic and social organization characterized by the common ownership of industry, transportation and agricultural land, and other key economic and social resources. → Assisted with decolonization → Led to Cold War, which was mainly fought in former colonies. *These historical processes contributed to the creation of regions and countries at different stages of Development, and a wide gap between the rich and poor—Inequality -​How do we measure Development? Economic Sectors: Globalization: Primary (Extractive) *Multinational corporations and outsourcing Secondary (manufacturing) *Inequality persists. Tertiary (services) Quaternary (Information) ​ Commodity Chains: a network of labor and production that link world regions together in ways that may reinforce economic difference. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): ​ The total value of all materials, food stuffs, goods and services Gross National Income (GNI): ​ Includes value of overseas investments Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)​: How much can each currency purchase locally UN’s Human Development Index (HDI): ​ Measures life expectancy, education, personal income Other Social Drivers​: Gender Practicing Development → ​Neoliberal Development Model *Too much govt. Creates inequality *Reduce state budgets *Privatization of industries or utilites *Minimize laws that regulate business, working conditions, and the environment *The International Monetary Fund (IMF) follows this model →​ Alternative Development Model *Development is not a purely economic process *Create development in local communities *Focus on the social as well as economic good Political Organization of the Globe ​ States: political entity with internationally recognized borders and sovereignty ​ Nations: group of people sharing common elements of culture and geography ​ Nation-States: the ideal state, one that joins a nation with a relatively homogenous group of people. ​ Supernational Organizations: collections of states with a common goal ​ Social Movements: focus on social or political issues Population and Urbanization → More than half of the world’s population now lives in cities. Our Identities Influenced by where we are… 1. Religion 2. Language 3. Ethnicity 4. Race 5. Gender 6. Class 7. Sexuality Middle East and North Africa The Middle East and North Africa → What joins these geographic areas into regions? *Cultural, Ethnic, and Religious similarities Adapting to Aridity → People have adapted many strategies to deal with the hot and dry climate. *Architecture featuring high ceilings, deep-set windows, and arched roofs. *Locating living quarters around a shady courtyard *Clothing, such as head covering and long robes *Seasonal Migrations Water as a precious resource → Two major freshwater sources: *The Nile *Tigris and Euphrates *Access has produced conflict throughout history ​ Oases: underground water that percolates to the surface and supports plant and animal life, including agriculture. ​ Water Mining: tunnels that collects groundwater and brings it to the surface through gravity flow. ​ Desalinization: converting saltwater into drinking water *Expensive *Could disturb ocean habits Nonrenewable Resources → Petroleum and natural gas reserves are valuable *US and UK based companies drilled for oil in the region beginning early 1900s. → In 1960, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was created to take control of oil markets in the region. → Global oil demand is still very strong, but shifting geographically → Concerns over climate change and creating sustainable futures could impact oil production and wealth for the region Flora and Fauna → Years of deforestation, overhunting leads to few forests and increased desertification *the process by which semiarid lands become degraded and less productive, leading to more desertlike conditions → Afforestation projects under way..think rewilding *Convert previously non-forested land to forest by planting seeds or trees Middle East and North Africa: C ​ ulture and Populations The Importance of Islam → 90% of the population practices some form of Islam → Qur’an and the Sunna *The Islamic sacred book and a set of practical guidelines for behavior *Drawn from the words and actions of the prophet Muhammad → Five Pillars of Islam *Prayer, giving alms, fasting during rhamadan, making the pilgrimage to the mecca, and repeating the profession of the faith. Islamic Secs → ​Sunni and Shi’a *Shi’a argue that political leadership must be divine and must derive from the descendants of Muhammad. *Sunni believe that clergy, with no divine power, should succeed Muhammad. → ​Sufism *A mystical form of islam *Sunni is the most widespread in the region *Shi’a is the most widespread in Iran Secularism vs. Religious Law → ​The rise of Islamism *An anti-western, anti-imperial, anti modernization political movement *Desire to create societies based on priniciples of islamic law *Most muslims are not Islamists. ISIS desires to create a single state based on islamic laws. →​ Jihad-To strive *All muslims struggle to be better muslims *Establish islam as a universal religion through peaceful conversions, the establishment of rights or promote islamic social system. →​ Qital-Fighting or warfare *Can be interpreted as a holy war Gender Difference and Expectations → Women’s access to public and private space *Outside vs. inside the home → Women’s economic and political participation *Urban vs. rural experiences *The role of economic class *The politics of each country Population Shifts → Approx. 500 million people in the region → Pull Factors: *Immigration to Israel *Guest workers → Urbanization: Most people live in urban centers, which are relatively large and few → Squatter Settlements: Result from inability of cities/gov. to provide housing, water, electricity, etc. → Push Factors: War, civil unrest, and lack of opportunity


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