Anatomy & Physiology - Skeletal System & Joints
Anatomy & Physiology - Skeletal System & Joints 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Skeletal System Greek o Skellein – to dry up Skeletal divisons o Axial skeleton o Appendicular skeleton Axial o 80 bones 28 skull 8 head 14 face 6 ossicles Hyoid bone 26 vertebrae 25 thoracic bones Appendicular o 126 bones 6 girdles (points of attachment for the limbs; pectoral & pelvic) 60 upper extremity 60 lower extremity 206 total bones in our body Pectoral girdle o Attaches upper extremities to axial skeleton Clavicle Scapula o Not much holding it there Pelvic girdle o Stronger attachment o Attaches lower extremities to axial skeleton o forms pelvis from 2 os coxae and sacrum ilium pubis ischium surface markings o fissure space between parts of the same bone blood vessels and nerves pass through this i.e. interior orbital fissure o foramen hole in a bone blood vessels, nerves, & ligaments pass through i.e. foramen magnum foramina = plural form o meatus tunnel-like tube through which nothing passes i.e. external auditory meatus o sinus air-filled space reduce weight of front of face so neck muscles don’t have to be as strong size of sinuses vary from individual to individual i.e. paranasal sinuses paired, mucosa-lined cavities found in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones o lighten skull o warm and humidify air (helps with thermoregulation) o resonate sound (tonal qualities of voice) o groove depression that houses blood vessels, nerves, & tendons i.e. intertrabecular groove o sulcus another name for a groove same thing o fossa depression on bone that contains nothing i.e. infraspinous fossa o condyle rounded extension on bone that is used for articulation medial & lateral o head large articulating portion of a bone that sits on the end of a constricted portion of a bone o facet smooth flat surface that is used for articulation attachment sites for ligaments & tendons o ligament – structure that attaches a bone to a bone o tendon – structure that connects muscle to bone o tubercle bump on bone i.e. greater and lesser tubercle o tuberosity larger, rounded area for attachment o trochanter bump (tubercle) on femur o crest deep ridge i.e. iliac crest o line shallow ridge i.e. anterior & posterior gluteal line o spine sharp extension (point) i.e. iliac spine o epicondyle above/upon condyle medial & lateral fontanels o old French fontaine – fountain o thin membrane in skulls of babies o can feel blood pumping through membrane fetal fontanels o incomplete skull bones present at birth o form through intramembranous ossification – does not complete prior to birth o takes between 1.5-2 years for a baby’s skull to completely ossify o reasons to not be completely formed at birth: allow for enlargement of skull as baby develops birth – skull can pass through more easily o only in embryos and newborns Joints Latin o Articulare – to join Definition o Joining of two bones o Point of contact between bones or between bones and cartilage Any movement that causes a change in the position of a bone has to occur at an articulation (joint) o Joints are the center of movement o The closer bones are to one another, the stronger the joint but the less movement they can do Functional classification – amount of movement that exists at the joint o Synarthroses Immovable i.e. suture joints in skull o amphiarthroses slightly movable i.e. pelvis o diarthroses “freely movable” but not really (just much more movable than the others) i.e. knee Structural classification – type of connective tissue used/whether or not there is a joint cavity o Fibrous No joint cavity No space between bones Fibrous connective tissue – usually dense irregular Most fibrous joints are synarthritic joints Examples: sutures – joints between skull bones (synarthritic) syndesmoses – joint in which the two bones are connected by a ligament (amphiarthritic) gomphoses – peg and socket joint; teeth are held in place by fibrous connective tissue (synarthritic) o cartilaginous no joint cavity bones connected by cartilage little or no movement Examples: synchondroses – hyaline cartilage at point of attachment symphyses – fibrocartilage (amphiarthritic) o i.e. joints between vertebrae o synovial does contain a joint cavity – space between bones movable (diarthritic joint) articular (hyaline) cartilage covers ends of bones but don’t connect them articular capsule – connects bones together 2 layers – inner and outer Fibrocapsule – outer layer o Fibrocapsule is connection of periosteum from the two bones o Dense irregular connective tissue Synovial membrane – deep to fibrocapsule; inner o Lining of synovial joint cavity o Made of areolar connective tissue Produces fluid called synovial fluid which accumulates in the cavity o Joint cavity is fluid filled – functions: Helps to prevent friction Mild cushion Phagocytic cells in it Ligaments – connect one to bone; outside Capsular ligament – thickened fibrocapsules Extracapsular ligament – thickened dense irregular connective tissue (fibrocapsules) Menisci – extra wedge of fibrocartilage that separates articular surfaces of bones at joint “cushion” of cartilage Movement o Laltin Movere Friction reducers o Bursae Sack filled with synovial fluid found between bone & skin, bone & muscle, or bone & ligaments o Tendon sheath Modified bursae that surrounds tendon Factors limiting movement o Structural limit Non-boney parts – movement is limited by muscles and such Articulating bones – bones limit the amount of movement that can occur o Ligaments Number – more ligaments, less movement Increase strength decrease movement Tension – increase first limits mobility, but then breaks ligament if stretched too far o Muscle tone NONE of our muscles are ever completely relaxed (always partially contracted) Muscle tone = state of partial contraction The stronger the muscle tone, the less movement Types of movement o Gliding Simplest of all movements Bones at joints moving side to side or back and forth i.e. intercarpal, intertarsal, intervertebral o Angular Change the angle between two bones i.e. legs stepping flexion – decreasing the angle extension – increasing the angle to return to anatomical position hyperextension – extension beyond the anatomical position abduction – pulling away from the midline of the body adduction – pulling toward the midline circumduction – distal end of a bone moves in a circle around the stationary proximal end o rotation movement of bone around its own longitudinal axis medical rotation – moves toward midline lateral rotation – moves away from midline o special movements inversion – “dog poop movement”; sole of foot is twisted inward at the ankle eversion – sole of foot is twisted outward at the ankle protraction – clavicle or mandible is thrust forward retraction- recovery from protraction; clavicle or mandible pulled back supination – elbow bent; palm up pronation – elbow bent; palm down elevation – move joint upward (shrugging shoulders) depression – move joint downward opposition – ability to touch thumb to other fingers (opposable thumb) joint disorders o sprain forceful twisting of joint partial tearing of attachments injury to a joint; strain is injury to muscle o dislocation displacement of a bone in a joint completely destroys ligaments and tendons healing: reestablish the joint – snaps back into place; then immobilize subluxation – half dislocation o bursitis inflammation of bursae due to friction or trauma o tendonitis inflammation of tendon sheath due to overuse (not usually trauma) o arthritis inflammation of joint osteoarthritis wear & tear disease; joint has been used so much that it wears out and becomes inflamed; seen predominantly in weight-bearing joints can accelerate by long distance running or being overweight get bone spurs that are very painful usually only on one side rheumatoid arthritis immune system attacks joints causes deposition of bone leads to disfigurement of joint if bilateral, probably rheumatoid arthritis gouty arthritis excess of uric acid in a person’s bloodstream eating foods rich in nucleic acid uric acids crystalizes and collects at the joint uric acid combines with sodium debilitating