New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Anatomy & Physiology - Skeletal System & Joints

by: Courtney Luber

Anatomy & Physiology - Skeletal System & Joints 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 > Anatomy Physiology Skeletal System Joints
Courtney Luber

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the notes covered in class on 9/29
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology
25 ?




Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology I

Popular in Biology

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


Reviews for Anatomy & Physiology - Skeletal System & Joints


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/29/16
Skeletal System  Greek o Skellein – to dry up  Skeletal divisons o Axial skeleton o Appendicular skeleton  Axial o 80 bones  28 skull  8 head  14 face  6 ossicles  Hyoid bone  26 vertebrae  25 thoracic bones  Appendicular o 126 bones  6 girdles (points of attachment for the limbs; pectoral & pelvic)  60 upper extremity  60 lower extremity  206 total bones in our body  Pectoral girdle o Attaches upper extremities to axial skeleton  Clavicle  Scapula o Not much holding it there  Pelvic girdle o Stronger attachment o Attaches lower extremities to axial skeleton o forms pelvis from 2 os coxae and sacrum  ilium  pubis  ischium  surface markings o fissure  space between parts of the same bone  blood vessels and nerves pass through this  i.e. interior orbital fissure o foramen  hole in a bone  blood vessels, nerves, & ligaments pass through  i.e. foramen magnum  foramina = plural form o meatus  tunnel-like tube through which nothing passes  i.e. external auditory meatus o sinus  air-filled space  reduce weight of front of face so neck muscles don’t have to be as strong  size of sinuses vary from individual to individual  i.e. paranasal sinuses  paired, mucosa-lined cavities found in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones o lighten skull o warm and humidify air (helps with thermoregulation) o resonate sound (tonal qualities of voice) o groove  depression that houses blood vessels, nerves, & tendons  i.e. intertrabecular groove o sulcus  another name for a groove  same thing o fossa  depression on bone that contains nothing  i.e. infraspinous fossa o condyle  rounded extension on bone that is used for articulation  medial & lateral o head  large articulating portion of a bone that sits on the end of a constricted portion of a bone o facet  smooth flat surface that is used for articulation  attachment sites for ligaments & tendons o ligament – structure that attaches a bone to a bone o tendon – structure that connects muscle to bone o tubercle  bump on bone  i.e. greater and lesser tubercle o tuberosity  larger, rounded area for attachment o trochanter  bump (tubercle) on femur o crest  deep ridge  i.e. iliac crest o line  shallow ridge  i.e. anterior & posterior gluteal line o spine  sharp extension (point)  i.e. iliac spine o epicondyle  above/upon condyle  medial & lateral  fontanels o old French  fontaine – fountain o thin membrane in skulls of babies o can feel blood pumping through membrane  fetal fontanels o incomplete skull bones present at birth o form through intramembranous ossification – does not complete prior to birth o takes between 1.5-2 years for a baby’s skull to completely ossify o reasons to not be completely formed at birth:  allow for enlargement of skull as baby develops  birth – skull can pass through more easily o only in embryos and newborns Joints  Latin o Articulare – to join  Definition o Joining of two bones o Point of contact between bones or between bones and cartilage  Any movement that causes a change in the position of a bone has to occur at an articulation (joint) o Joints are the center of movement o The closer bones are to one another, the stronger the joint but the less movement they can do  Functional classification – amount of movement that exists at the joint o Synarthroses  Immovable  i.e. suture joints in skull o amphiarthroses  slightly movable  i.e. pelvis o diarthroses  “freely movable” but not really (just much more movable than the others)  i.e. knee  Structural classification – type of connective tissue used/whether or not there is a joint cavity o Fibrous  No joint cavity  No space between bones  Fibrous connective tissue – usually dense irregular  Most fibrous joints are synarthritic joints  Examples:  sutures – joints between skull bones (synarthritic)  syndesmoses – joint in which the two bones are connected by a ligament (amphiarthritic)  gomphoses – peg and socket joint; teeth are held in place by fibrous connective tissue (synarthritic) o cartilaginous  no joint cavity  bones connected by cartilage  little or no movement  Examples:  synchondroses – hyaline cartilage at point of attachment  symphyses – fibrocartilage (amphiarthritic) o i.e. joints between vertebrae o synovial  does contain a joint cavity – space between bones  movable (diarthritic joint)  articular (hyaline) cartilage covers ends of bones but don’t connect them  articular capsule – connects bones together  2 layers – inner and outer  Fibrocapsule – outer layer o Fibrocapsule is connection of periosteum from the two bones o Dense irregular connective tissue  Synovial membrane – deep to fibrocapsule; inner o Lining of synovial joint cavity o Made of areolar connective tissue  Produces fluid called synovial fluid which accumulates in the cavity o Joint cavity is fluid filled – functions:  Helps to prevent friction  Mild cushion  Phagocytic cells in it  Ligaments – connect one to bone; outside  Capsular ligament – thickened fibrocapsules  Extracapsular ligament – thickened dense irregular connective tissue (fibrocapsules)  Menisci – extra wedge of fibrocartilage that separates articular surfaces of bones at joint  “cushion” of cartilage  Movement o Laltin  Movere  Friction reducers o Bursae  Sack filled with synovial fluid found between bone & skin, bone & muscle, or bone & ligaments o Tendon sheath  Modified bursae that surrounds tendon  Factors limiting movement o Structural limit  Non-boney parts – movement is limited by muscles and such  Articulating bones – bones limit the amount of movement that can occur o Ligaments  Number – more ligaments, less movement  Increase strength  decrease movement  Tension – increase first limits mobility, but then breaks ligament if stretched too far o Muscle tone  NONE of our muscles are ever completely relaxed (always partially contracted)  Muscle tone = state of partial contraction  The stronger the muscle tone, the less movement  Types of movement o Gliding  Simplest of all movements  Bones at joints moving side to side or back and forth  i.e. intercarpal, intertarsal, intervertebral o Angular  Change the angle between two bones  i.e. legs stepping  flexion – decreasing the angle  extension – increasing the angle to return to anatomical position  hyperextension – extension beyond the anatomical position  abduction – pulling away from the midline of the body  adduction – pulling toward the midline  circumduction – distal end of a bone moves in a circle around the stationary proximal end o rotation  movement of bone around its own longitudinal axis  medical rotation – moves toward midline  lateral rotation – moves away from midline o special movements  inversion – “dog poop movement”; sole of foot is twisted inward at the ankle  eversion – sole of foot is twisted outward at the ankle  protraction – clavicle or mandible is thrust forward  retraction- recovery from protraction; clavicle or mandible pulled back  supination – elbow bent; palm up  pronation – elbow bent; palm down  elevation – move joint upward (shrugging shoulders)  depression – move joint downward  opposition – ability to touch thumb to other fingers (opposable thumb)  joint disorders o sprain  forceful twisting of joint  partial tearing of attachments  injury to a joint; strain is injury to muscle o dislocation  displacement of a bone in a joint  completely destroys ligaments and tendons  healing: reestablish the joint – snaps back into place; then immobilize  subluxation – half dislocation o bursitis  inflammation of bursae due to friction or trauma o tendonitis  inflammation of tendon sheath due to overuse (not usually trauma) o arthritis  inflammation of joint  osteoarthritis  wear & tear disease; joint has been used so much that it wears out and becomes inflamed; seen predominantly in weight-bearing joints  can accelerate by long distance running or being overweight  get bone spurs that are very painful  usually only on one side  rheumatoid arthritis  immune system attacks joints  causes deposition of bone  leads to disfigurement of joint  if bilateral, probably rheumatoid arthritis  gouty arthritis  excess of uric acid in a person’s bloodstream  eating foods rich in nucleic acid  uric acids crystalizes and collects at the joint  uric acid combines with sodium  debilitating


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.