Psych 101: Chapter 4 Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Motz on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Towson University taught by Beth A. Gallihue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Ch.4 Sensation and Perception Sensation the process of detecting physical energies like tastes, smells, and sights, from the environment Transduction the process of transforming chemical energy to electrochemical energy *Turning Sensation into Perception Perception the brain’s process of organizing and interpreting sensory information and giving it meaning *Allows you to know what you’re tasting, or what you’re seeing. BottomUp Processing initiated by sensory input *Outside world’s influence on perception, uses stimuli’s appearance, structure and patterns TopDown Processing initiated by cognitive processing *Mental world’s influence on perception, uses expectations and prior understandings Factors that Affect Perception Attention : focusing awareness on a narrowed aspect of the environment *You can give your full attention to more than one thing at a time Selective Attention : putting your focus on a specific aspect, while ignoring others Determined by our motives Cocktail Party Effect when you’re talking to someone at a party you only hear they’re conversation, while blocking out all the other noise Stroop Effect interference in the reaction time of a task GREEN YELLOW RED ORANGE BLUE It’s harder to say the word because your brain first tries to say the color of the font. Sensory Adaptation: change in the responsiveness of the sensory system, when your senses get used to their surroundings Based on the average level of surrounding stimulation Ex: After being in a room a long time you will no longer hear the air condition running. After being in a pool a certain amount of time the water will no longer feel cold. You cannot smell the scent of your own house unless you’ve been gone for a really long time. Synesthesia: when one sense induces an experience in another sense Ex: seeing music or tasting color, Kanye West’s song “Flashing Lights”, Remy tasting colors and music in “Ratatouille” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rLXYILcRoPQ Phantom Limb Pain: people have had limbs removed, but still feel the pain of it being there Visual System Energy is electromagnetic in the form of light waves. Cornea: outside cover, protects the eye Cones and Sclera: white part of the eye Rods Pupil: opening that let’s light in Lens: focuses the light on the retina Iris: colored part of the eye Retina: light sensitive surface that houses the light receptors Rods: in charge of light Cones: in charge of color Optic Nerve: transmits electrical impulse from retina to brain Pathway of visual information left visual field is processed in the right visual cortex, and the right visual field is processed in the left visual cortex Color Blindness one or more cones are in operative Astigmatism misshapen cornea or lens Figureground Relationship relating to the perception of images by the distinction of objects from a background from which they appear to stand out *Appear different to different people Structure of the Ear Energy is mechanical in the form of sound waves. Outer Ear Pinna: localization of sound Ear Canal Middle Ear Ear Drum: vibrates in response to soundwaves 3 bones: Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup Inner Ear Cochlea: where transduction occurs Basilar Membrane: in charge of balance Pathway Cochlea Auditory Nerve Brain Stem Temporal Lope Most information crosses to opposite hemisphere then it is received, similar to the occipital pathway. Sense of Touch: Skin Pathway Touch Receptors Spinal Cord Thalamus Somatosensory Cortex of the Parietal Lobe Two Parts of Touch Temperature: thermoreceptors for warm and cold Simultaneous warm and cold is perceived as hot Pressure Pain: our sense of danger Fast and Slow pain pathways Acute Pain Thalamus Treatment: analgesics Chronic Pain Limbic System Treatment: distraction, focused breathing, counter stimulation Chemical Senses Taste: receptors on the tongue called papillae sweet, sour, bitter, and salty Smell (Olfactory Sense): Olfactory epitheliuma specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell Limbic system (memory and emotion), this is why we form “smell memories” Ex: You might have been on the swim team all your life so the smell of chlorine makes you feel tired. Other Senses: Kinesthetic Movement, posture, orientation Muscle fibers and joints “muscle memory”
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