Synthetic Cannabinoids FSC 440
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsey Smith on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSC 440 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Nesser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Drug Identification in Forensic Science at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
FSC 440- Drug Identification September 28, 2016 Synthetic Drug Abuse Synthetic Cannabinoids (28%) Synthetic Cathinones (25%) Most severely abused synthetic drug categories CSA Schedule I Synthetic Cannabinoids Manmade chemical compounds which have psychoactive effects- to mimic/enhance psychoactive drugs Street Names: designer drugs, synthetic marijuana, new psychoactive substance (NPS), spice, K2, lave, aroma, wicked x Prevalence Became popular among younger people- sold as an herbal incense, jewelry cleaner, or plant food and is labeled “not for human consumption” Cost: $30-40 per 3 grams Available online and in gas stations The calls to poison control has dramatically increased for synthetic cannabinoids The drug is mixed with and or dissolved into a liquid and then sprayed onto dried plant materials to form “synthetic marijuana” This mixture is then smoked, vaped, snorted, ingested History Initially developed as a part of research efforts to make new medicines- Roger Adams 1940s In the 80s and 90s a series of synthetic cannabinoids were made (JWH-018) First appeared in Europe in 2004 and US in 2008 Banned in Germany 2009 5 synthetic cannabinoids were placed on emergency CI in 2011 As of 2013 there are over 400 different synthetic cannabinoids that have been identified Mechanisms A Cannabinoid receptor in the CNS was identified in 1988 Receptors occur in many areas of the brain CB1- found mainly in CNS CB2- found in the immune system and tissues Affinity to bind to receptors CB1 > THC CB1 > CB2 Why do humans have receptors made for plants? o There must be an endogenous neurotransmitter-like substance that acts on the receptors o Several of these have now been discovered- the endocannabinoids Two main endocannabinoids have been found: AEA and 2-AG o They are retrograde messengers that carry information in the opposite direction from postsynaptic to presynaptic Psychoactive Effects Euphoria Sociability Anxiolytic Relaxant Stimulant Severe Side Effects Increased heart rate and blood pressure Anxiety Paranoia Headache Vomiting psychosis Seizures Diaphoresis Pharmacokinetics Serum concentration of JWH-018 decreases rapidly over several hours It is quickly metabolized After 6 hours an analyst can only give qualitative answers indicating if the drug is present in a person’s system and cannot measure how much is in the body Pharmacodynamics Blood concentrations below 1 ng/ml within an hour or two after smoking Detectable in oral fluids Urine concentrations may be detectable for 24 hours It is hard to identify synthetic cannabinoids because there are many metabolites of the drug Forensic Analysis Complexity of drug Relatively fast excretion Various metabolites Vast number of new drugs v limited research Lack of availability of reference standards There is not one immunoassay test to identify the drug Screening and Confirmatory tests include: GC-MS/MS or LC-MS/MS Summary- this list of questions covers the main topics from this lecture What are synthetic drugs? Why do emerging synthetic drugs circumvent drug laws? Why is it different for forensic scientists to identify synthetic cannabinoids?
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