Biological Anthropology In Class Lecture Chapter One
Biological Anthropology In Class Lecture Chapter One ANTH 101 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tera Notetaker on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 101 - 001 at Portland State University taught by Amiee Potter (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO BIOLOGICAL ANTH in Biological Anthropology at Portland State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
ANTH 101 Lecture Notes 9/28/16 What is Science? Roots of Biological Anthropology Evolution as theoretical framework o What does this mean? o Isn’t it just a belief? Beliefs and logical framework two diff things Biological anthropology uses the scientific method within an evolutionary framework Science and Anthropology o Ask a question Do background researchConstruct a hypothesisTest with an experimentProcedure working? Notroubleshoot, check all steps and set-up. YesAnalyze Data and draw conclusionsResults align with Hypothesis OR align partially or not at all with hypothesisbecomes background research for new or future project. Ask new question, form new hyp., experiment again. Communicate Results. o Process keeps scientists honest b/c other scientists can try experiment to get same or diff results and then can decide whether there is truth to hypothesis or refute it. o Observation of a phenomenon or something o Repetition of observation In situation S, does X always occur? o Induction—hypothesis proposed—a preliminary explanation that can be tested o Deduction o Testing—hypothesis driven, empirical data o Induction Reproducibility, falsifiable, support for, refute, reject Is Science Perfect and Completely Free of Influence? No—there is always interpretation involved Influenced by social milieu o Changes; Portrayal of Neand. has changed completely. Scientists are a product of their “school of thought” o Different fields of study Scientists adhere to paradigms (intellectual framework) o Self-correcting; correct earlier mistakes o Revise and refine theories and models o Model: based on evidence Early Thinkers Aristotle—each species has an immutable essence o The Great Chain of Being o Orderly and hierarchical with humans on top The Renaissance o The foundations laid for modern science Rediscovery of Greek science but re-interpreted with a more modern perspective Circumnavigation Encountering non-western people Defining human-ness o They realized that the world varied and changed— diversity—how do we explain it? Started questioning immutability of species and the world Influence of the Great Artists o Leonardo da Vinci o Vesalius—medical text De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543) Still… o Strong relationships b/t theology and science or naturalists Immutable Young World—Arch Bishop Usher—4004 BCE Who Set the Stage For Darwin and Wallace? Linnaeus Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) George Cuvier (1769-1832) Charles Lyell—Father of modern geology (1797-1875) Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1801) Naturalists and Geology Classification of their world o Linnaeus Binomial nomenclature(scientific naming)—used to today— taxonomy—building on the work of John Ray who was first to use genus species—Systema Naturae—still believed in the immutability of species and creation What is nomenclature? Taxonomy? A taxon? o Comte de Buffon—1700’s –kind of accepted the idea the species change—his major or radical observation was connecting the influence of environment on a species—that when a pop. moves to a new environment often they change o Georges Cuvier—late 1700s and early 1800s—natural scientist—did not accept evolution—he espoused a notion of Catastrophism—i.e. great flood—to explain disappearance of a group and appearance of a new one o Geoffroy Saint Hilaire—early 1800s—he did accept evolution and was an advocate o Lamarck—theory of inheritance of acquired traits—organisms do adjust to their environment –they do so in their lifetime and then pass that on to their offspring—Lamarckian evolution Uniformitarianism Influence of Geologists – o Hutton—father of modern geology o Lyell—slow steady processes—gradual change—that as you go farther down by layers then the bottom layers are older and you will see earlier more primitive forms of life Stratigraphy and stratigraphic supposition Influence of Malthus—that left unchecked, populations reproduce until they outstrip their resources—competition and limited resources. How populations become extinct. o Population checks: Sickness (plague) Wars Stage Was Set for Darwin All these earlier thinkers shaped Darwin o The Darwinian Revolution Huge paradigm shift—that species change (evolve)—long, slow, gradual evolution – or modification through descent as Darwin called it—is how we arrived at all the diversity on earth—shared ancestry Charles Darwin Left medical school to pursue a divinity degree at Cambridge—awarded in 1831 Sailed on HMS Beagle in December 1831 o Five years traveling and collecting and documenting The Galapagos Islands Finches, tortoises, iguanas o But it was the finches He collected from every island—he noticed each island had its own variant But—it was John Gould back in London who labeled and organized the specimens Darwin then formulated his theory o He realized that adaptive radiations take place What is an adaptive radiation? Source populationexpanding to different islandsdiff resources and envrionmentsspecialization Darwin’s Theory? His theory of evolution… o Evolution and adaptation are the outcome w/ natural selection as the mechanism Life on earth arose through evolution—descent from a common ancestor—not through creation Natural selection was how evolution occurred o Microevolution Not enough change for new species o Macroevolution Enough change for new species Natural Selection All the environmental pressures Darwin saw natural selection operating on individuals According to Darwin: o Natural selection is the outcome of these four conditions: Organisms must reproduce Trait must be inherited (Darwin didn’t know about genetics— stickiest part of his theory. Unit of inheritance and how it worked was unknown) There must be variation—in the traits Competition Influence of Malthus on Darwin; No competition then no differential reproductive success. o Unique characteristics of humans: Intelligence Manual dexterity Technology Uprightness o Overriding assumption of evolution? Progress