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Chapter 1: Programming 101

by: LadyLJ

Chapter 1: Programming 101 CS 1336

Marketplace > University of Texas at Dallas > CS 1336 > Chapter 1 Programming 101
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These notes cover all of chapter 1: 1.2 Main Memory 1.3 Machine Languages 1.4 The parts of basic code 1.5 Input, Processing, and Output 1.6 Your programming process 1.7 Procedural and Object-...
Programming Fundamentals
Charles O. Shield
Class Notes
c++, Computer, Science, code, intro




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by LadyLJ on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CS 1336 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Charles O. Shield in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers and Programming **Vocabulary is highlighted and code is color coded 1.2 Main Memory Commonly called RAM (Random Access Memory) It is VOLATILE – memory is erased when the program terminates or computer is  turned off Two components: Bits and Byes Bits – smallest piece of memory, has a value of 0 (false) or 1 (true) Bytes – 8 bits, each has a unique address 1 Bit         1        0        1        1         1         0        0         1 1 Byte = 8 Bits 1.3 Machine Language A program – a set of instructions that a computer follows to perform a task           Starts with an algorithm (set of well­ defined steps) PsuedoCode – also a set of instruction, but has a specific format with key words (See PsuedoCode Notes for more details) Machine language instructions are in binary; 01001010111010110 But we can’t read it like that without YEARS of training, so we use Programming  languages instead. C++, C, Java, etc. are used to create programs. A compiler is  needed to translate the code we type to the binary the computer reads. Programs have an executable order just like math does:  Source Code Source Code is entered by you.  Preprocessor 3 Important Parts : Preprocessor – converts source files to source  Modified Source Code code program statements Compiler – converts source programs into  Compiler machine instructions Linker – connects hardware specific code to machine instructions (and produces the  Object Code executable code)  Linker  Executable Code 1.4 The parts of a program // This program is being used as an example // means a comment they are used in your programs to help  program you go back a fix bugs later #include <iostream> Using namespace std; The blue words are called “key words” are cannot be used  for any other purpose other than what the compiler uses  Int main() them for. { The red word at the top sets the stage for what you can use  // Declare your variables first float number1, numTwo; and define later in your code, it is part of the preprocessor.  float num_3 = 6.0; There are many that you will learn and we will add them to  the list as we go. // You can ask the user for input and assign to a variable main() is the main function of your program cout << “Declare a number for variable the variables I have declared must follow certain rules (later number1”; in note) but the basic formatting is: cin >> number1; [data type] [variable name] // You can also calculate the values of your variables The cout statement is an out of compiler statement that  numTwo = number1 * num_3; pulls information from another program already imbedded  in your computer. And cin gives the user a chance to input a // Then you can print out the variable the value then assigns that value to a variable. user was asking for or the program needed to write Operators (like in math) are also used regularly in code: cout << “The number you were looking for is:” << numTwo << endl; /  *  ­  +  =  <  >  Some professors are picky and want you to comment on the return 0; } // end main() end of functions, this “end [function type]” is all they want  to see. 1.5 Input, Processing, and Output 1) Gather input data            From the keyboard or from files on the disk drive 2) Process the input data 3) Display the results as output            Send it to the screen and write to a file 1.6 Your Programming Process 1. You are given a task 2. Read and re­read the task carefully 3. Use the resources given to you to plan out how you want to write your code. a. PsuedoCode, flowcharts, even just writing down the key points the  program needs to do. b. Do whatever works for you 4. Actually sit down and write the code 5. Most processors will underline things that will cause problems. FIX THEM. 6. Repeat 4 & 5 until the code runs properly adding in things that you either  forgot the first time or realized you needed to make the output look nice. 7. Make sure your formatting is correct 8. Turn it in. IF you find yourself getting frustrated, do something relaxing for about half an  hour and come back. I found that I am able to not only process the problem better  the second time, but while I relaxed I thought about ways to solve the problem.  Now this does not mean “go play video games”!! I usually go for a walk around  the block or if I’m hungry cook myself a small meal and sit down and eat.  Whatever you do don’t turn on the TV you will lose your focus and your brain  wont process anything to work through the problem. Try to stay in the same mind  set as study mode, but take a step back from your actual studies. 1.7 Procedural vs Object­Oriented Programming Procedural – the focus is on the process, subsections of code designed to perform a task Object­Oriented – focus is on the objects and the manipulation of the data.


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