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Music 302 Week 6 Notes

by: Clarissa Notetaker

Music 302 Week 6 Notes Mus 302

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Clarissa Notetaker

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Shona continued, Ewe People
Music in World Culture
H. Kaufman
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Notetaker on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Mus 302 at Humboldt State University taught by H. Kaufman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Music in World Culture in Music at Humboldt State University.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
Week 6 Music 302 Music in World Culture Shona -Musicians are professionals and specialists in one instrument Instruments -Primarily idiophones -Lamellophone: an idiophone with plucked keys arranged in a fan pattern -the metal keys vibrate -number of keys and thickness of keys varies -lowest pitch is in the center -Shona lamellophones are called Mbiras -Mibira construction reflects interlock so that interlock is both seen and heard -Types of Mbiras 1. Matape: 25 keys with shells/bottle caps for buzz 2. Karimba: 15 keys or less--smaller Mbira 3. Njau: 29 keys, 4 panels 4. Dzava Ndau: 34 keys, which are thinner Shona Mbira -Mbira Dza Vadzimu--"Mbira of the ancestors" -22-23 keys -most sacred instrument -buzzers attached--buzz clears thoughts/worries -mounted on wood -keys pressed with thumbs -pinkie in a hole while playing -often played in a Deze (gourd or fiberglass shell or basin) for sound amplification held upright on lap ringed with bottle caps to Shona, sounds like whispering voices or tapping Hosko -gourd rattle -accompanies Mbira dza vadzimu Common Tunings (Chunings) -Nyamaropa--most common mixolodian -Gandanga--less common -like the major/minor scale in the west Two Instrumental Interlocking Parts 1. Kushaura: "to lead;" odd number beats 2. Kutsinhira: "to follow;" even number beats; starts one beat off from Kushaura -both same pitch -echo effect, can sound like question and answer -interlock is the most important idea in layout and music Three Vocal Elements 1. Huro: high pitched vocal yodeling style 2. Kudeketera: melody with words in normal (mid) vocal range usually poetry, prose, one line repetition to tell a story 3. Mahonyera: low-pitched syllabic moaning--just sounds Shona Spirituality -Strong connection to ancestors -Ancestors never really die but watch over and effect their families' lives, remaining the owners/leaders If ancestors' values are upheld, they will protect If these values are dishonored, they will punish with sickness, rain, drought -If someone is sick and medicine fails to heal him, the Shona believe something is spirituality and not physically wrong with the person. In this case, the Bira Ceremony is held -Bira Ceremony -Mbira most direct way to communicate with the spirits of ancestors -Professional Mbira players are hired to try to get an ancestral connection by playing songs ancestors might prefer -Atrans induction ceremony to inspire a spirit medium through music The Ewe People -Ethnolinguistic group -Inhabit parts of Ghana, Togo, Benin -Less Islamic influence, more indigenous beliefs (38%) -Mostly fishermen and farmers -Migrated to gain own homeland, escape low class and slavery -Eventually split into four groups, one of them theAnlo-Ewe -Anlo-Ewe -Tradition state in Keta Lagoons in Southeast Ghana moved there for military and survival lagoons are unnavigable by ships and the mountains give a lookout point -1874 British control -1957 Ghana first independentAfrican nation Dance-drumming -An integral part ofAnlo-Ewe community life, a necessity -Aform of prayer as well as social, battle preparation, protest, and entertainment -Music and singing accompanies all work such as fishing -Everyone expected to take part Musicians -Amix of professional specialists, semi professionals (most), and amateurs Music 1. Based on interlock and polyrhythm (many rhythms played at once) 2. Mostly created with idiophones, membranophones, and vocals 3. Rhythmic integrity the most important attribute -maintaining rhythm in conflict and confusion, sticking to one's purpose -relates toAnlo-Ewe outlook on life Idiophones 1. Axatse: gourd with shells/beads/nuts usually played sitting, hit against the thigh and palm of the hand 2. Gankogui: two-toned (low and high) bell usually played sitting 'mouth' (the low part) must be closed off to enunciate Membranophones -played in a 'family' of four usually from the same tree -each has its own rhythm pattern 1. Atsimevu: the father, the tallest (must be tilted), open bottom; top and sides hit 2. Sogo: the mother, closed bottom 3. Kidi: the son, closed bottom like mother 4. Kaganu: the 'baby girl,' the smallest, open bottom like father, sounds as if is crying out for father, pleading


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