Module 1 Notes
Module 1 Notes CCJ3653
Popular in Drugs, Alcohol and Crime
Popular in Criminal Justice
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marianna Pinho on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ3653 at Florida Gulf Coast University taught by Albert Antonini in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Drugs, Alcohol and Crime in Criminal Justice at Florida Gulf Coast University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chapter 1 - Understanding the Drug-Problem in America Thursday, August 18, 20161:22 PM • Three central facts: ○ The challenges we face with respect to drug-related behavior extend beyond illegal drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin, LSD and other hallucinogens and marijuana 25 times more deaths each year as a result of the effects of legal drugs such as nicotine and alcohol ○ The magnitude of the impact that drug-taking behavior has on our society The direct and indirect monetary costs of drugs-taking behavior in our society are enormous, amounting to hundreds of billions of dollars each year These costs are classified into four major areas: 1) Economic costs of lost workplace productivity due to absenteeism, industrial accidents, and premature death of workers 2) Health care expenditures require to treat individuals with illnesses related to drug use, particularly with respect to the abuse of tobacco and alcohol 3) Costs of drug-related crime borne by the victims of criminal behavior and the community in which the criminal activity occurs 4) Expenses of maintaining a criminal justice system devoted to the control of illegal drugs Costs that cannot be calculated □ Decline in our collective sense of social order, the diminishment of personal dignity and self worth, and the devastating effect on relationships we have with our families and individuals around us. ○ It is not just a "young people's problem" Can be observed in the workplace and retirement communities as well as on street corners, in school yards and on college campuses Social Messages about Drug Use Friday, August 19, 2018:55 PM • World that sends us mixes messages about drug-taking behavior ○ Cigarettes ○ Beer It has been established that the degree of positive expectancies about alcohol (viewing drinking as a way of gaining social acceptance, for example) predicts the onset age of drinking and the tendency to engage in high-risk alcohol use over time ○ Marijuana Illegal substance Schedule I controlled substance High potential for abuse No accepted medical use Same category as heroin Two Ways of Looking at Drugs and Society Friday, August 19, 20169:03 PM • Psychoactive drugs: drugs that affect feelings, thoughts, perceptions or behavior ○ Influence the functioning of the brain and hence our behavior and experience • Illicit (illegal) drugs: drugs whose manufacture, sale or possession is illegal • Criminal penalties • i.e. Heroin, cocaine, marijuana, as well as "club drugs" such as methamphetamine (meth), Ecstasy, LSD, PCP ketamine and GHB • Licit (legal) drugs: drugs whose manufacture, sale or possession is legal • Alcohol, nicotine, caffeine and certain prescription medicines used to treat a wide range of mental disorders 1. Biological, psychological and social consequences • Biological ○ Use of psychoactive drugs modifies the functioning of the brain, both at the time during which the drug is present in the body and later when the drug-taking behavior stops Produces long-lasting brain changes ○ • Sociological ○ Can be viewed as a result of a complex interaction of the individual and his or her environment ○ We cannot fully understand without being aware of the social context in which drug-taking behavior occurs 2. Interplay of circumstances that lead to drug-taking behavior • How we feel about ourselves in relation to our family, to our friends and acquaintances • Drug dependence: a condition in which an individual feels a compulsive need to continue taking a drug, in which the drug assumes an increasingly central role in the individual's life A Matter of Definition: What is a Drug? • Drug: a chemical substance that, when taken into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning. • No perfect definition that would distinguish a "drug" • Whether the substance in question has been intended to be used primarily as a way of inducing a bodily or psychological change • We are operating within a context of social and cultural values, a group of shared feelings about what kind of behavior is acceptable and what kind is not Instrumental/Recreational Drug Use • Instrumental use: referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes a drug for a specific purpose other than getting "high" • With a socially approved goal in mind i.e. stay awake longer, fall asleep more quickly or recover from an illness ○ • Legal status of the drug itself or whether we agree with the reason for drug-taking behavior is not the issue here • Involve prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) drugs that are licitly obtained and taken for a particular medical purpose • Recreational use: taking the drug not as a means to a socially approved goal but for the purpose of acquiring the effect of the drug itself • Experience a pleasurable feeling or achieve a positive state of mind • Whether the drug use is judged to be recreational or instrumental is determined in no small part by the circumstances under which the behavior take place Drug Misuse or Drug Abuse? • Drug misuse: a prescription or OTC medication is used with an instrumental goal in mind but in an inappropriate manner • Can be dangerous and potentially lethal • Alcohol is combined with drugs that depress the nervous system • Antihistamines, antianxiety medications, and sleep medications • Drug abuse: a licit or illicit drug is used in ways that produce some form of physical, mental or social impairment • Primary motivation is recreational Module 1 Page 3 The Problem of Drug Toxicity Friday, August 19, 2016 11:25 PM • Dose: the quantity of drug that is taken into the body, typically measured in terms of milligrams (mg) or micrograms • Acute toxicity: the physical or psychological harm a drug might present to the user immediately or soon after the drug is ingested into the body • Dose-response curve: an S-shaped graph showing the increasing probability of a certain drug effects as the dose level rises • Effective dose: the minimal dose of a particular drug necessary to produce the intended drug effect in a given percentage of the population • Specific effect on a test population in terms of probabilities • ED50 = 50 percent of the population • Looking at the properties of a specific drueffecthere, not at the overall properties of the drug itself • Lethal dose: the minimal dose of a particular drug capable of producing death in a given percentage of the population • Toxicity is determined by • therapeutic index: combining the effective and lethal doses of a drug in a ration ○ i.e LD50/ED50 • Margin of safety: the ratio of a lethal dose for 1 percent of the population to the effective dose for 99 percent of the population • i.e. LD1/ED99 • The wider the margin of safety, the safer (less toxic) the drug in question • FDA requires during the development of new drugs • Caveat emptor ("Let the buyer beware") • Illicit drug sellers are diluted with either inert or highly dangerous ingredients • To have some idea of the toxic effect of psychoactive drugs in a broader context, we have to return to the institutions that contend with drug toxicity on a daily basis: the emergency departments of hospitals around the country Module 1 Page 4 The DAWN Reports Saturday, August 20, 20112:24 PM • Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN): a federal program in which metropolitan hospitals report the incidence of drug-related lethal and nonlethal emergencies ○ Number of times an individual visits an emergency department (ED) for any reason that is connected to recent drugs ○ Reports two types of information ○ Tracks the number of times a person enters the emergency department for drug use and the number of drug- related deaths 1. Drug-related ED visits: an occasion on which a person visits an emergency department (ED) for a purpose that is related to recent drug use □ Wide range of drug-related situation: suicide attempts, malicious poisoning, overmedication and adverse reactions to medications, as well as the use of illicit drugs, the use od dietary supplements, and the nonmedical use of prescription or OTC drugs 2. The number of drug-related deaths, as determined by a coroner or medical examiner • Polydrug: involving multiple drugs Emergencies Related to Illicit Drugs • Drug most likely to result in an ED visit in 2011? ○ Cocaine (40%) ○ Marijuana (36%) ○ Heroin (21%) ○ Methamphetamine (13%) ○ Twice as likely to be a male or female • The current ranking is heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine then marijuana Drug-Related Deaths • It is far more common for drug-related deaths to be a result of single-drug use • Opioid drugs (heroin, morphine, methadone, and opioid medications) are the most frequently reported drug involved in a drug-related death • Cocaine was typically reported in 2010 among the "top three" drugs in these circumstances more frequently reported in earlier years • Alcohol ( in combination with other drugs) is commonly in the "top three" and is almost always in the "top five" • Medications used to treat anxiety or depression are almost always among the "top five" most frequently reported drugs in drug-related death cases • Marijuana is far less prominent in drug-related deaths, exclusively in the context of multiple-drug rather than single- drug use • Methamphetamine use a cause of a drug-related death is largely underestimated in the DAWN statistics Judging Drug Toxicity from Drug-Related Deaths • More instances of drug-related deaths resulting from heroin use than instance of cocaine use underestimates the potential lethality of heroin, since there are far fewer heroin users than cocaine users in the United States • Rare association of marijuana with a drug-related death actually overestimates its potential lethality, given its widespread use within a much larger group of people • Requires an understanding of how frequently a particular drug is used in the general population Demographics and Trends • Dramatic increase in the number of cocaine-related emergencies occurred in the mid 1980s as a result of the rise of cocaine abuse and crack cocaine • Decade later, heroin-related emergencies took place, as the purity of available heroin increased and the availability of heroin use without a needle injection • Mid 1990s - use of illicit "club drugs" ○ Ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, LSD, and methamphetamine • A decade later - opioid (opiate-related) prescription medications, also known as narcotic analgesics ○ Methadone, oxycodone (Percocet), controlled-released oxycodone (OxyContin), and hydrocodone (Vicodin) • Most recently, heroin has been most prominent Multiplying the Problem of Drug Toxicity: How Many Drug Users? Saturday, August 20, 2019:23 PM • DAWN Surveys ○ The extent of acute toxicity involved in the ingestion of a particular drug ○ Unable to get an illuminating picture of the negative consequences of using a particular drug over a long period of time ○ Chronic toxicity: the physical or psychological harm a drug might cause over a long period of time • We would not be so concerned if we lived in a society in which few or any individuals were engaged in that form of behavior ○ It is a major problem because substantial numbers of individuals are drug users and, in particular, substantial numbers of drug users are young people Prevalence Rates of Drug Use in the United States • Questionnaires are all we have, and the statistics on the drug use are based on such survey measures • Survey questions are phrased in four ways: 1. Whether an individual has ever used a certain drug in his/her lifetime Focuses on the extent of experimentation 2. Whether an individual has used a certain drug over the past year Focuses on the extent of current but moderate drug use 3. Whether an individual has used a certain drug within the past 30 days Focuses on the extent of current but moderate drug use 4. Whether an individual has used a certain drug on a daily basis during the previous 30 days Focuses on the extent of heavy drug use Illicit Drugs Use among High School Seniors • Rates for the use of illicit drug other than marijuana is down from about 20% in 200 and 17% in 2013 • 2000 - 37% of seniors reported smoking marijuana in the past year • About one out of three high school seniors used marijuana over the past year and one out of 14 senior used marijuana on a daily basis in 2013 Illicit Drug Use among College Students • College students reported in 2013 a slightly lower annual prevalence rate (39%) in the use of illicit drugs in general Alcohol Use among High School and College Students • General decline in alcohol use and heavy drinking among adolescents from 1980 to 2013 ○ Stems from a number of factors: National campaigns aimed at reducing drunk driving Encouragement of nondrinking designated drivers General personal disapproval of binge drinking All U.S. states have now adopted a 21-years-or-older requirement • Statistics show that more work needs to be done ○ More than half of 8th graders (56%) found it "fairly easy" or "very easy" to obtain alcoholic beverages Tobacco Use among High School and College Students • 9% of high school seniors in 2013 had established a regular habit of nicotine intake by smoking at least one cigarette every day • Nicotine remains the drug most frequently used on a daily basis by high school students • About 4% of seniors and 3% of 10th graders reported smoking at least half a pack of cigarettes per day - a strikingly high level for this age group, considering the legal obstacles they face when attempting to obtain cigarettes • Non-college bound seniors are about 3 times more likely than college-bound seniors to smoke at least a half-pack of cigarettes per day Drugs among Youth in a Diverse Society • 2013 - annual prevalence rates among African American seniors were lower than that among white students with respect to inhalants, hallucinogens, LSD, Ecstasy, cocaine, OxyContin, and alcohol, as well as levels of daily cigarette smoking and drunkenness smoking and drunkenness • Latino seniors were lower than that among white students with respect to hallucinogens, LSD, and OxyContin but higher with respect to inhalants, Ecstasy and cocaine ○ Daily cigarette smoking was less prevalent ○ Alcohol use and drunkenness were roughly equivalent Drug use and Perceived Risk • The decision to engage is intermeshed with individual perceptions about the drug in question • This most recent crop of youngsters [in 1996] grew up in a period in which drug use rates were down substantially from what they had been 10 to 15 years earlier. This gave youngsters less opportunity to learn from others' mistakes and resulted in what I call "generational forgetting" of the hazards of drugs." ~ Lloyd Johnston, chief researcher for the Michigan survey • Troubles in the 1990s, changes in the way our society dealt with the potential risks of drug use ○ Drug abuse prevention programs in schools were scaled back or eliminated because of a lack of federal funding ○ Parents were communicating less with their children about drug use ○ Anti-drug public services messages were less prominent in the media ○ Media coverage in this area declined ○ The cultural influences of the music and entertainment industry were, at best, ambivalent on the question of drug- taking behavior, particularly with respect to marijuana smoking • The likelihood of using a drug is inversely related to how much disapproval might be experiences ○ Especially for adolescents, when peer approval is such an important element in guiding his or her behavior Continuing Challenges Saturday, August 20, 201610:37 PM Three principal areas of concern: 1. Advanced technologies employed by chemical laboratories situated in Asia have made it possible to produce synthetic "designer drugs" in unprecedented quantities and chemical variations ○ New formulations are flooding the country at the present time ○ Promoted and distributed as though they are pure forms of existing drugs, when they are not ○ Contain chemical combinations that present significant health risks ○ Nothing is known about the specific chemical composition Forensic laboratory analysis which can only be carried out after sufficient quantities have been seized by drug-control authorities 2. Incidence of nonmedical use of prescription and nonprescription medications has risen enormously in recent years ○ Hydrocodone (Vicodin), oxycodone (Percodan, Percocet), sustained-release oxycodone (OxyContin) Principal prescription pain medications involving recreational drug-taking behavior ○ Methylphenidate (Ritalin) and a combination of dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine (Adderall) continue to be popular either for recreational use (to get high) or for instrumental use (to be able to stay awake longer) or achieve a degree of "cognitive enhancement" 3. Newly established Internet Web sites have made it possible for individuals to make illicit drug transactions using virtual currencies, allowing purchases to be made with greater anonymity and ease than had ever been possible ○ Facilitated international arms trafficking as well ○ Law enforcement authorities have found it frustratingly difficult to close down these operations Looking Ahead • Every day, enormous quantities of illicit drugs, as well as unauthorized medications manufactured in foreign laboratories, flow into the United States through elaborate drug trafficking routes, despite the efforts to interdict them and restrict their availability Chapter 2 - Understanding the Drug Problem in Global Perspective Tuesday, August 30, 201610:51 AM • Impacting millions of individuals in other nations of the world just as they are impacting America • Global illicit drug trade: an international business encompassing the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of illicit drugs in practically all regions of the world ○ Encompasses the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of illicit drugs in practically all regions of the world today ○ Business sustained by brutality, opportunism, greed and a continuing pattern of political corruption ○ $28 billion to $280 billion • Money laundering - divert relatively small amounts of funds into the operations of multiple legitimate businesses, which then funnel their profits back to them • As long as demand stays high, suppliers will have the upper hand. • International Surveys ○ World Drug Report Over the previous 12 months Individuals aged 15 to 64 150 nations Published b the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Breaks down the prevalence rates for individual illicit drugs among individual nations ○ European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) Illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco Adolescents 15-16 years old 36 European nations ○ Together they gives us a glimpse into the global picture of drug-taking behavior 2.1 Worldwide Prevalence Rates of Illicit Drug Use Tuesday, August 30, 201611:02 AM • In the past year, 4-7 percent of the adult population in the world have used illicit drugs ○ Roughly one in ever 20 individuals • Estimated 16 million heroin users world wide • Annual prevalence rate for cocaine use is approximately the same as that of heroin (0.4%) • More than 180 million people use cannabis ○ 3.9% of the world's population ○ Outnumber heroin and cocaine users combined by more than five to one • U.S. rates are higher than the worldwide average in all five categories, four to five times higher in the use of cocaine and cannabis and three times higher in the use of Ecstasy ○ Affordability of illicit drugs in a relatively affluence society European Prevalence Rates for Illicit Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco Tuesday, August 30, 2011:08 AM • ESPAD ○ More than 100,000 European students aged 15-16 years old • American adolescents are less likely to use cigarettes and alcohol but more likely to use illicit drugs ○ U.S. is the second-lowest in the proportion of students using alcohol or tobacco ○ U.S. is near the top of the list with respect to other forms of drugs 2.2 The Global Problem of New Psychoactive Drugs Tuesday, August 30, 20111:17 AM • The emergence of hundreds of newly synthesized psychoactive drugs • Relatively easy for foreign laboratories, principally Asia, to create new drug formulations by making minor alterations in the molecular structure of known psychoactive compounds • Greatly complicated drug-control efforts • Mid 2012, more than 250 new psychoactive drugs, developed primarily in Asia, has emerged on the drug scene • Cannabinoids ○ JWH-018 AKA Spice or K2 Appeared in 2010 ○ JWH-073 The Global Problem of Drug Trafficking Tuesday, August 30, 201611:23 AM • Ideally it authorities would be able to identify, at any precise moment, all of the illicit drug-trafficking routes in the world and all of the means by which drugs are distributed. But this is not possible due to: ○ Extraordinary agility on the part of the global illicit drug trade in adapting to changing law enforcement circumstances Operations can often be moved within hours, making it relatively easy to shift illicit drug activity to another location One country might be dominant one year and the neighboring country be dominant the following year Constant state of flux ○ Limited ways that are available for keeping track of drug-trafficking activities Examine on an ongoing basis confiscated shipments of illicit drugs in drug- seizure operations and raids on illicit drug laboratories and distribution sites The confiscated drugs are by no means a random sample of the drugs involved in a particular trafficking system Correlate with the extent of drug trafficking in a particular region, but the quantity of confiscated drug may be related to the intensity of drug-control campaigns in that region or else the ease by which drugs are intercepted by drug-controlled authorities Cannot know the extent to which the magnitude of drug seizure is related • Best known international trafficking routes, past and present, of five major illicit drugs: ○ Heroin ○ Cocaine ○ Marijuana ○ Methamphetamine ○ Hallucinogens LSD PCP Ketamine Heroin Tuesday, August 30, 201611:32 AM • Origin is opium ○ Produced from the cultivation of the opium poppy Plant that is native to the Mediterranean region Grows well in any warm and moist climate • Produced from morphine • Trafficking requires a multistage operation, beginning with the cultivation of opium itself, then the refinement of opium to morphine and eventually morphine to heroin Heroin, Turkey and the "French Connection" • Most of the raw opium itself was produced and transported from Southeast Asia • Turkish farmers grew opium poppies as well • The "French Connection" 1. Local farmers were the pharmaceutical companies that manufactured Heroin Trafficking in Mexico and Colombia morphine and other opium-based medications for legitimate purpose • Dominant players in heroin trafficking into the US Part of the crop would be left aside and later diverted to morphine laboratories operated by criminal groups in the area • Mexico Shipped to Corsican-controlled heroin laboratories in Marseilles ○ Crudely processed with many impurities, resulting in a much disparaged 2. powder version 3. Transported to New York Resulted in a brown or black color and sticky consistency American Mafia groups controlled its distribution in major U.S. □ AKA brown heroin, Black Tar, "Tootsie Roll" cities Methods have "improved" so as to achieve high levels of purity • 1960s and 70s ○ More direct sources in Southeast Asia and Southwest Asia ○ 2-7% of the world's opium ○ All of the Mexican opium that is converted into heroin is destined for the United States The Golden Triangle and the Golden Crescent ○ Grown by small, independent farmers known as campesinos in rural • Have little or no impact on heroin consumption in the United States areas of Sinoloa, Chihuahua, Durango and Guerrero ○ Smuggling process: • Golden Triangle: once-dominant opium producing region of Southeast Asia, 1. Traffickers pay a prearranged price for the opium crop, the now eclipsed by opium-producing nations of the Golden Crescent ○ Usually sold as a white or off-white powder equipment used in harvesting and food for the farmer's family ○ Known as China White 2. Opium broker collects the opium and transports it to a clandestine ○ Smuggled process: laboratory to be processed into heroin 3. Smuggled primarily overland across the Mexico-U.S. border via 1. containerized maritime cargo from such locations as Taiwan and private and commercial vehicles that have been equipped with Hong Kong hidden compartments 2. Traveled to major ports if entry along the West Coast and western 4. Smaller quantities are carried across the border by illegal aliens or Canada 3. Transported eastward to cities such as Chicago and Detroit migrant workers who hide the drugs in backpacks, in the soles of ○ Today, direct Southeast Asian heroin markets are primarily in Asia and their shoes and on their bodies Australia • Colombia ○ Less than 5 percent of the world's total estimated production • Golden Crescent: a major opium-producing region of Southwest Asia, ○ Most of the heroin used in the United States is produced comprising Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkey, Iran and former regions of the ○ High-quality heroin is manufactured from home-grown opium poppy fields Soviet Union ○ Single largest source of heroin for worldwide consumption within Colombia ○ Afghanistan alone has the capacity to supply approximately 94 percent ○ Supplies of raw opium are transported from opium poppy fields in of the world's heroin neighboring Bolivia and Peru During the low crop yields, other regions in Myanmar and Laos ○ Smuggling process: 1. Traveling on commercial flights from one of the Colombian airports make up the extra quantities needed for the global marketplace to international airports in Miami, Atlanta and New York ○ Has three major trafficking systems 2. Couriers ("drug mules") swallowed small pellets of heroin that had 1. Northern route □ Extends through Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and been placed in condoms or balloons, or wrapped in latex from Turkmenistan to Kazakhstan (formerly part of the Soviet surgical gloves or concealed it in body cavities, taped it to their Union) and the Russian Federation itself bodies or concealed it in their clothing or shoes 3. Larger quantities smuggled by transporting the drug in suitcases 2. Balkan route containing heroin sewn into the seams of clothing □ Principal trafficking corridor for Afghan heroin 4. Recruited Mexican couriers to transport South American heroin □ Markets in the Russian Federation and Western Europe through rural areas of Mexico then across the border via the private Extending through Iran (via Pakistan), Turkey, Greece and Bulgaria or commercial vehicles □ East African nations of Benin and Tasmania to Nigeria with destinations in Western Europe 3. Southern route □ Through East, West and Central Africa □ Now brings significant quantities of heroin Module 1 Page 14 Cocaine Tuesday, August 30, 2016 5:05 PM • Derived from the leaves of the coca shrub • High-altitude rain forests and fields that run along the slopes of the Andes in South America • Top producers vary from year to year • Peru appears to have passed Colombia as the world's largest coca cultivating nation • Price is relatively cheap • Remains a predominantly Colombian enterprise ○ Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean have enabled Colombian traffickers to smuggle cocaine to the United States by a variety of air and sea routes • Smuggling process: 1. From Colombia to other South American countries such as Ecuador, Venezuela, and Brazil 2. To Mexico, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, and the Dominican Republic 3. Repackaged for shipment to south Florida, south Texas, and California • Techniques: ○ Small commercial fishing vessels that "hug" or keep close to the coasts of eastern Caribbean islands, allowing them to blend in with other vessel traffic and minimizing the opportunity for detection ○ Air-dropped to waiting boat crews, who then deliver the shipment to shore in speedboats ○ Smuggled through the port of Miami by concealing them in the compartments of large commercial cargo vessels and specially constructed submarines • Cartels: an organization centered on the manufacture, distribution, and/or sale of illicit drugs • Medellin and Cali drug cartels: two major Colombian drug cartels that controlled much of the illicit drug distribution in South America from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s ○ Medellin Led by Pablo Escobar Fleets of small airplanes loaded with cocaine into the remote airfields Profits were invested in increasingly sophisticated cocaine labs, better airplanes, and even a private island in the Bahamas where their planes could refuel Kingpins at the center of the directed operations □ Self-contained cells were managed by a small number of cartel managers □ Specialized in a different aspect of the drug business such as production, distribution, smuggling, and money laundering Responsible for the murder of hundreds of government officials, police, prosecutors, judges, journalists, and innocent bystanders Controlled the cocaine market in south Florida ○ Cali Cartel Subtle in their operations Relying on political corruption over violence, conducting their business in a discreet and business-like manner, and reinvesting much of their profits from the illicit drug trade into legitimate business Relied heavily on political bribes for protection Controlled the distribution of cocaine in New York Smuggles most of its shipments in large cargo ships, hiding the drugs in all types of legitimate cargo, from cement blocks to bars of chocolate ○ Taken over by smaller independent Bolivian, Peruvian, and Mexican organizations (calledcartelitos) Smaller, more controllable groups, having realized that large organizations were too vulnerable to prosecution • As the demand for cocaine in the United States exceeded supplies, more sophisticated trafficking methods were developed ○ Semi-submersible vessels (mini submarines), have been designed for maximal evasion of drug-contorl authorities Module 1 Page 15 Marijuana Tuesday, August 30, 20165:33 PM • Major foreign source of marijuana smuggled into the United States • Most of the marijuana that enters the United States from Mexico is smuggled by land • Wide variety of methods for smuggling ○ Concealing the drug in false vehicle compartments located in doors, fuel tanks, seats and tires ○ Hidden in tractor-trailer trucks among shipment of legitimate agriculture products, such as fruits and vegetables ○ By horse, raft, and backpack • British Columbia representing major suppliers for marijuana users in the United States ○ Northwest and on the West Coast • Hydroponic cultivation - marijuana plants are grown in nutrients-rich water rather than soil ○ BC Bud: British Columbia-grown marijuana, produced under hydroponic (water-based) cultivation methods ○ Nutrients are more readily supplied to the plant that when marijuana is grown in soil ○ Grow faster and grow larger leaves, flowers and buds • "Home-grown" marijuana cultivated ○ Exists throughout the United States ○ Most frequently plant marijuana in remote areas, often camouflaging it in surrounding vegetation • Outdoor cannabis ○ California, Hawaii, Washington, Oregon and the Appalachian region of Kentucky and Tennessee ○ 80% is from California, Oregon and Washington • Law enforcement agencies rely on the use of military helicopters to carry out clandestine monitoring of marijuana plots from the air ○ Growers have covering the plots with camouflage netting or by tying the stems and branches of marijuana plants to small stakes on the ground • Domestic marijuana traffickers have taken to hydroponic cultivation indoors ○ Law enforcement responded by equipping helicopters with heat-detecting devices to identify unusual sources of light or by checking for unusually high power bills of suspected growers Growers responded by growing in chicken houses which rely on intense light and heat sources Module 1 Page 16 Methamphetamine Tuesday, August 30, 20165:54 PM • Chemical structure is similar to that of amphetamine • More pronounced effect on the central nervous system • White, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder • Commonly referred to as "speed", "meth" and "crank" • Primary precursor chemicals are ephedrine and pseudoephedrine ○ Purchasing inexpensive over-the-counter cough-and-cold medications • Controlled by motorcycle gangs such as Hell's Angels and other groups • Significant increase in the supply for high-purity, low-cost methamphetamine • Smaller independent "mom and pop" laboratories • Dispose of highly toxic wastes from the production process by dumping the material into a nearby lake, pond or stream • "Chemical time bombs" - frequent explosions ad fires that are triggered by the highly flammable and toxic chemicals needed for methamphetamine production • Methamphetamine Epidemic Act ○ In 2005 ○ Reduced the availability of large quantities of precursor chemicals such as pseudoephedrine ○ "Stove top" laboratories sufficient to produce only enough meth for a small number of people ○ Supplies of the drug coming largely from producing facilities in Mexico ○ Countries in Asia as well Module 1 Page 17 LSD, PCPandKetamine Saturday, September 3, 2017:26 PM • Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) ○ Clear or white, odorless crystalline material that is soluble in water ○ Dissolved in a solvent for application onto paper ○ Blotter paper or Blotter acid Sheets of paper soaked or sprayed with LSD Decorated with a variety of colorful designs and symbols ○ Contain hundreds of small, perforated, one-quarter-inch squares, with each square representing one individual dose ○ Tablet form (microdots), thin squares of gelatin ("window panes"), or in a dissolved liquid form that can be stored in an eye-drop container or glass vial ○ Disperse hundreds of doses of LSD at large parties or concerts by administering the drugs on the tongue ○ Produced from lysergic acid ○ Chemically derived from the ergot fungus ○ Believed to come from sources located abroad, such as Europe and Mexico ○ Nearly all the LSD that is produced in the United States has originated from a small number of laboratories operating in northern California ○ Trafficking by mail, using over-night delivery services ○ Frequently concealed in greeting cards, plastic film containers, or articles of clothing that are mailed to a post office box established by the recipient • Phencyclidine (PCP) ○ Synthetic drug first used in medical anesthesia ○ Now classified as an illicit hallucinogen ○ Produced in clandestine laboratories either in Mexico or in the United States and distributed under a variety of street names Angel dust, rocket fuel, killer weed, embalming fluid, ozone, and Sherman • Ketamine ○ Special K or K ○ Chemically similar to PCP but produces less confusion, irrationality, and violence ○ Marketed as a general anesthetic for veterinary use ○ Stolen from supplies kept in veterinary facilities ○ Liquid form for injection ○ Market the drug in a powder or crystalized ○ Snorted, smoked (sprinkled on tobacco or marijuana), or ingested by being dropped into a drink, with an effect similar to that of PCP • Routes have splintered and diverged in directions that involve nations that had not ben part of the traditional illicit drug cultivation and trafficking business ○ Evade international drug-control authorities by keeping their operations as mobile as possible Module 1 Page 18 DrugTrafficking/Violence:TheMexicanConnection Saturday, September 3, 2018:45 PM • Mexican cartels ○ Amado Carrillo-Fuentes Organization (ACFO) ○ Arellano-Felix Organization (AFO) • Mexico is responsible for the trafficking of a wide range of illicit drugs, not only heroin and cocaine but marijuana, methamphetamines and hallucinogens • Continued to be the major transit location for illicit drugs, and unauthorized prescription drugs across the U.S. border • Competing cartels will sense a vacuum in the power structure of Mexico drug trafficking and an opportunity to become the new dominant drug cartel in Mexico. Drugs and Narcoterrorism • Narcoterrorism: a term referring to antigovernment political groups in which their operations have combined political insurgency and illicit drug trafficking • Violence waged by Afghan insurgent groups such as the Taliban, using profits from heroin trafficking as a means for funding their political activities • Stemming from a long-standing political struggle between the Colombian government and powerful cocaine trafficking organizations within Colombia Narcoterrorism in Afghanistan and Colombia • Drug trade was a source of income for the Taliban • Taliban announced a comprehensive ban on the cultivation of the opium poppy, purportedly for religious reasons • After the fall of the Taliban, Afghan growers resumed opium cultivation, and production increased • Difficult for the ban to be enforced • Has been a troublesome conflict between efforts to reduce the cultivation of opium in the rugged, mountainous areas of Afghanistan, on the other hand, regions to divest themselves from a profitable opium-trade involvement in order to support the central government and oppose the Taliban, on the other • Economic aid to Colombia rose to a previously unprecedented level of $88 million ○ Reduce the influence of major drug cartels that were dominant in Colombia at the time ○ Granting the Colombian government the funding to combat terrorism as well as drug trafficking, two struggles that in the view of the Bush administration had become one • Guerilla organizations opposed to the established Colombian government has dominated the political landscape ○ Referred to as La Violencia • Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) ○ Represent the people of rural Colombia against repression under the central government, exploitation of natural resources by multinational corporations, and political influence by other nation ○ Officially classified FARC as a terrorist organization ○ Claims approximately 18,000 members, though a substantial number of them have been identified as minors forced to join and fight along with the adults ○ Have created a coca-based economy Sell their excess "wages" to cocaine traffickers Traffickers refine the coca paste into cocaine and ship it to the United States FARC collects taxes on the trade, charges the traffickers for protection from authorities, and collects a fee for the use of remote runways for planes to take the cocaine away Plus an "export" tax on all cocaine shipped from FARC-controlled territory • It is unclear if a political Transnational Narcoterrorism Transnational Narcoterrorism • Shadow facilitators • Criminal operations include arms trafficking, money laundering, kidnap-for- ransom, extortion, and racketeering as well as drug trafficking • Al Qaeda ○ Foreign terrorist organization ○ Active for several years in west African nations such as Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, and Nigeria ○ Focus on trafficking Colombian cocaine ○ Financed the Hezbollah in the Middle East ○ Received support for the government of Iran ○ Terrorist organizations acquiring access to highly toxic substances, such as chemical weapons, for use as weapons of mass destruction Discussion Question Saturday, August 20, 2010:59 PM Define “Club Drugs”, and discuss what types of drugs are included in this category and the health risks when individuals participate in this drug – taking behavior. Conclude with why this category is important to watch and what trends of use or changes in legislature has occurred.
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